YOUNG INDONESIANS AS AGENTS OF PEACE IN THE FACE OF TERRORISMPROPAGANDA OlehHaifa Audrey Azzahra190110170071 Fakultas PsikologiUniversitas PadjadjaranSumedang2017 Tabel of ContentsCHAPTER I : INTRODUCTIONA. BackgroundStudy………………………………………………………….
LiteratureReview………………………………………………………..……2CHAPTER II : DISCUSSIONA.
CurrentSituation in Indonesia………………………………………………..4B. Peacethrough the Framework of Pancasila and Undang– Undang Dasar 1945………………………………………………………………………….
PuttingMethods of Attaining Peace in Practice………
..6CHAPTER III : CLOSINGA. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………….9B. Suggestions……………………………………………………………………9References…………………………………………………………………………………10 CHAPTER I.
INTRODUCTION A. Background StudyAmongthe list of Sustainable Development Goals, to promote peaceful and inclusivesocieties for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all andbuild effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels, falls atthe sixteenth place – a seemingly impossible task considering the diversecultures and religious beliefs that thrive and take form as human identities.The United Nations have been keeping records of progress to a certain extent, measured by the global indicator frameworkthat was developed by the Inter-Agency and Expert Group on SDG Indicators andagreed to, as a practical starting point at the 47th session of the UN Statistical Commission heldin March 2016. The progress was also announced in a report by theSecretary-General of The United Nations, entitled ‘Progress towards theSustainable Development Goals’.Despitethe fact that homicides have declined slowly and more citizens around the worldhave better access to justice (as was reported by the Secretary-General),regions across the world still strive for peace and justice. To name some ofthe extremes: Palestine and Syria. Their journey to peace and justice is a longway ahead. Other countries given leniency from war (this includes Indonesia)must take heed of their sufferings to achieve the 16th Global Goals.
Furtherdiscussion on peace and justice must take place. Inthis context, peace is not a state of mind. It is freedom from war and violenceor any other misconduct that creates distress among the involved parties.Meanwhile, justice itself can be attained when peace is understood. These twouniversal burdens that intertwine with one another are in accordance toIndonesia’s ideology, Pancasila and constitution, Undang – Undang Dasar 1945. Thus,scrutinizing on phenomenon and actions that could rupture or secure thepre-existing peace and justice in Indonesia becomes important. To put that intoimmediate effect, this paper examines a statement uttered by an Indonesianex-terrorist, Iqbal Huseini, on November 9th 2017. Iqbal Husaini alias Rambowas sentenced into four years of prison on the charges of terrorism amidst theAmbon Conflict.
But it is now Husaini’s belief that all citizens of Indonesia,especially the young people, must combat terrorism for it violates thefundamental values upheld by Pancasila and UUD 1945. In facing radicalterrorism propaganda, Husaini alias Rambo advised the young Indonesians tofulfill their role as agents of peace, active mainly on the social media. Itwill then be a solution for maintaining freedom and integration of NKRI (NegaraKesatuan Republik Indonesia). B. Problem FormulationEngravedthroughout the history of Indonesia is the struggle for better society,economics, and governments advocated by the young citizens of Indonesia.Gerakan Mahasiswa in years 1977-1978, 1990, and 1998 stand as evidence.
Lookinto the past then Iqbal Husaini’s initiative can be considered as a realisticideal. Butreflecting on regulations set by Indonesian supreme commands of law and thecurrent young people of Indonesia’s stance on prosocial relations (altruisticvalues and ability to create peace) can Iqbal Husaini’s initiative become thecatalyst to effectuate the sixteenth Sustainable Development Goal in Indonesia?C. LiteratureReviewAparamount aspect that would either decree Iqbal Husaini’s initiative intosuccess or sentence it into failure is the effectiveness of pitching youngIndonesians against terrorism propaganda.
An indicator that must be studied todetermine that is prosocial relations – whether young Indonesians on averagehave an on-depth understanding of it and conduct it on day-to-day basis. Prosocialrelation is a positive outlook offered by social psychology – a study on behaviorsthat intend to assist or benefit to someone. This particular relation can beexplored through altruism and peace-making (Myers, 2010). Avital part necessary for young Indonesians to have so they can carry out amission of peace in accordance to Pancasila is altruism. Myers (2010) definedit as the unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
Itis an uncomplicated concept, but to do it justice requires more effort. YoungIndonesians must first disregard the bystander effect. This is the inclinationto be idyllic in aiding someone when another individual is present (Myers,2010). IndonesianMinistry of Home Affairs, Tjahjo Kumolo stated as of June 30th 2016,the number of Indonesian population has reached 257.
912.349 and since then ithas grown by 4 million (www.jogja.tribunnews.com ,2017). This number is relevant as the population correlates to human resources– a figure abundant enough to be conquered by the bystander effect. In themidst of human potentials, young Indonesians must realize that each and one ofthem can play an important role in pushing forward sustainable development andthat their productivity matters. Thefuture of Indonesians depend upon the young people and for that youngIndonesians must be aware of the social-responsibility norm – an expectationthat people will give help to the need (Myers, 2010).
Rise to that challengeand it would be unquestionable that the altruistic values are embedded in youngIndonesians. With an altruistic mindset, peace can be pursued. Avoidance ofsocial traps is imperative – social traps being the orientation of personalinterest that harms collective interest. So does the mirror-image / enemyperceptions. This is sparked by conflict and as a result individuals can thinkof others in a distorted manner, often more malevolent than in reality (Myers,2010). The diversity of race, tribe, religion, and beliefs in Indonesiacan often manifest its frustration in conflict involving one another. Fallinginto social traps and immersion in mirror-image / enemy perception prolongsconflict, thus putting Indonesia farther away from achieving peace. Butactually, there are methods proven by scientific research that are beneficialin pursuing peace, such as contact between noncompetitive parties of equalstatus, cooperation to achieve superordinate goals – shared goals that can setaside differences, communication, and conciliation to decrease tension (Myers,2010).
CHAPTER IIDISCUSSION A. Current Situation in IndonesiaIn2016, an article by Media Indonesia revealed that after Preventive Justice inAnticipation of Terrorism Threats Development, a national seminar held in HotelBorobudur, Jakarta, Head of Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Terrorisme KomjenSuhardi Alius stated that radical groups such as ISIS use social media todetermine location of attack, training, fundraising, and coordination. InJune 27th 2017, BBC Indonesia reported that North Sumatran LocalPolice found 155 books consisting of ISIS propaganda, targeted to children, inthe home of one of the local North Sumatran police headquarter attackers. Suchsituations put Indonesia in a stance of defense. As a consequence, it isimperative to be aware of Undang –Undang No.15 Tahun 2003 – a measure taken to assertthe punishment for terrorists.
Theproblem is real. But before becoming agents of peace, young Indonesians mustleave behind behaviors such as bullying and discrimination. Another damningfactor is apathy.Bullying,discrimination, and apathy all lead to conflicts. One major counteract isperspective taking – viewing conditions and issues through the perspective ofothers. The other, is the methods of attaining peace as known through socialpsychology. B.
Peacethrough the Framework of Pancasila and Undang – Undang Dasar 1945.Althoughthe ways to attain peace is scientifically known, there is a distinctiveframework in which young Indonesians should view the methods of contact,cooperation, communication, and conciliation. Boundaries must be set whencarrying out these methods as in its applications; UUD 1945 and Pancasila have asupreme command that keeps Indonesians in line. First,it is important to emphasize that peace is also advocated by Pancasila and UUD1945. Belowis a further elaboration on the UUD 1945 preamble:a. Freedomis every nation’s right.
No nation can be considered inferior because of theirrace, culture, or religion. b. Colonizationand slavery are considered inhumane and unfair, thus violating the basic humanright. c. Keepinguniversal orderliness ruled by freedom and prolonged peace. d.
Fromthe point of Indonesia’s freedom and onward, Undang – Undang Dasar 1945 controland maintain the aforementioned freedom, subjecting the citizens of Indonesiato a supreme law. e. Integrationof Indonesia, politically, culturally, and geographically, is paramount. Included in the third paragraph of the Preamble is Pancasila. Thefirst Sila implicates monotheism. It emphasizes on freedom of religion, givingthe citizens of Indonesia the options of Islam, Christianity, Hinduism, Buddha,etc. This attitude salutes the concept of human rights but can create problemsof its own, especially when differences between religions are exaggerated.Specifically, Islam – which requires the believers to have to complete faith –is often misinterpreted as an encouragement to wage wars against otherreligions.
This misfortune affects both Muslims and other people of faith gravely.The second and fifth Silas discuss components that support theattainment of peace, namely human rights and justice. Careful regards to bothhuman rights and justice prevents conflicts. The fourth Sila states that democracy is foundational in governing.
Communication between the government and the people is facilitated by thefreedom of speech allowed in democracy. This is means of way to reveal pent upfrustrations of Indonesian citizens. But perhaps, in this context, the most relevant Sila is the third–’Persatuan Indonesia.’ Integration designed by peace is intended by theSustainable Development Goals.In order to maintain peace the verse of UUD 1945 also includesassertions that Indonesians must keep the integration of NKRI (Negara KesatuanRepublik Indonesia). The 30th article of UUD 1945 states as follows’Tiap-tiapwarga negara berhak dan wajib ikut serta dalam usaha pertahanan dan keamanannegara’. It is compulsary for all citizens of Indonesia to take part inmaintaining the integration and safety of the country.
It is compulsary forthem to act in accordance of peace, to guarantee both integration and safety ofIndonesia. It is importantto acknowledge the framework which Indonesia can create peace – UUD 1945 andPancasila – so the kind of peace Indonesia wants to foster is not vulnerable tomisinterpretation. In succession of knowing the views illustrated by UUD 1945and Pancasila, one should trace back the four methods to attain peace proposedby social psychology to UUD 1945 and Pancasila – see how Indonesia’s ideologyand constitution agree to it.
C. Putting Methods of Attaining Peace in Practice.Young Indonesians must first master the four methods and implementit within themselves. The reasoning behind this is how can young Indonesians beagents of peace if they cannot forge peaceful relationships among their peersand foster it so that peace grows beyond their peers and into the community?Still in thecontext of UUD 1945 and Pancasila, here is how young Indonesians can apply thefour methods of attaining peace into commonplace interaction with their peersand community. 1. Contact.
Prejudice,aggression, and conflict can be resolved through making contact between twodifferent parties of equal status (Myers, 2013). Pancasila supports this,mainly through the third Sila that states ‘Persatuan Indonesia’.Different races and religions are scattered on every regions in Indonesia. Itwould benefit every single one of them, if each group of race or religionwelcomes more contact with other significant groups.
Atschools, colleges, workplaces, or the community, certain groups of races / religioncan reach out to other groups and invite them for positive interactions.2. Communication.InIndonesia, communication is ruled by UUD 1945 Pasal 28E ayat (3), Pasal 28F andPasal 28J.Democracyin Indonesia allows for free communication among its citizens, as long as theyuphold human rights – restraining themselves from discriminatory or hatespeech.With that concept in mind, young Indonesians can start to becomerational mediators of two conflicting parties (i.e.
groups of races orreligions) when tension between them is high. As aconcrete act, young Indonesians can start using the social media much morecarefully, posting positive messages online, instead of staying silent whilecyber bullying occurs or even cyber bullying itself. This positive responsealso extends to statements that are discriminatory and hateful – a commoncharacteristic of terrorism propaganda.3. Cooperation.Citizensof Indonesia, especially the young, need to cooperate with one another toachieve their superordinate goals (as was mentioned in the UUD 1945 Preamble);a.
untuk membentuk suatu pemerintah negara Indonesia yang melindungisegenap bangsa Indonesia dan seluruh tumpah darah Indonesiab. untuk memajukan kesejahteraan umumc. mencerdaskan kehidupan bangsad. dan ikut melaksanakan ketertiban dunia yang berdasarkankemerdekaan, perdamaian abadi dan keadilan sosialAccordingto Myers (2013), superordinate goals can override diversities and shift theirfocus into cooperating as opposed to competing. Indonesia’s superordinate goalsare the main directive that will force young Indonesians to cooperate. YoungIndonesians will have to realize that every each young individual in Indonesiadoesn’t have to subject themselves to an unhealthy competition to see whichindividual is better. That was never Indonesia’s principle. Indonesia– a country that upholds ‘kekeluargaan’ – is more suited tocollaborative cooperation.
As aconcrete act, young Indonesians can build more teamwork in academic,organizational, or social settings by a. followinginstructions that came from authority figures (group leaders, teachers, etc),and,b. fullyacknowledging their roles by having a strong sense of self and play their roleseffectively as a form of participation in achieving the superordinate goals.Theseideas may seem far-fetched to the initial goal discussed, but to have acapacity for peace, cooperation and teamwork must be in order. 4.
Conciliation.Conciliationmay not be directly addressed in UUD 1945 and Pancasila, but it correlatesstrongly with maintaining peace, and therefor integration. It is necessary tosettle disputes.
Gestures like apologies and kind favors will not beoverlooked. Emotion regulation can play a huge role in allowing conciliationsto take place. Asan example young Indonesians can abide by clauses of UUD 1945, specificallyPasal 28 J ayat (1) and ayat (2) that states when exercising one’s rights,there are boundaries that must not be crossed, namely the human rights ofothers. Keeping the integrity of other people’s rights can be a form ofconciliation that hopefully is reciprocated. One exemplary gesture is beingrespectful of other cultures and religions – enabling certain practices likeSalah of the Muslims, sermons of the Christians, of Hindu’s celebration ofNyepi to occur unbothered. CHAPTER IIICLOSING A.
ConclusionConsidering that there is a. acurrent, dire condition in which conflicts that potentially could grow into thedisintegration of Indonesia arise, b. ascientifically proven method to achieve peace (methods promoting prosocialrelation), andc. freedomand encouragement to do so from the laws and regulation of UUD 1945 andPancasila.It can be concluded that young Indonesians can carry this outHusaini’s initiative, fulfilling their role as agents of peace, especially onthe social media front, tackling down terrorism propaganda. B.
SuggestionForfurther understanding on anti-terrorism initiative discussed in this paper, theauthor suggests a thorough examination on future ideas put forth by thegovernments and that one delve through UUD 1945 and Pancasila in case ananalysis is necessary. ReferencesHingga Juli 2017 Jumlah PendudukIndonesia Bertambah Jadi 262 Juta Jiwa Lebih. (2017). Accessed on 14November 2017, from http://jogja.tribunnews.
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