With the ongoing conflict with Catalonia, and a referendum being signed for Independence only to be declined by the Spanish Government shows how a country like Spain manage to balance it all out.
Economic reform and trade liberalisation will be important in helping Spain cope with these challenges by making its economy more open and flexible. Since his election to office in 2012, Although progress has been made in a number of sectors, including in agricultural reform, continued reform efforts will be needed to revitalise Japan’s business environment. The Bank of Spain introduced negative interest rates in February 2016 to encourage spending and investing. The IMF forecasts Spain’s economy to grow 0.8 per cent in 2017 and 0.5 per cent in 2018.
The rapid ageing of Spain’s population will reduce the size of the workforce and tax revenues, while placing increasing demands on health and welfare expenditure. Labour-market reforms, are being implemented to increase participation to counter this trend. In April 2014, t Lessons Learned Projects were implemented in Japan with World Bank loans for the development of the nation’s economic foundation, such as electric power generation, basic industries development, transportation, water, and infrastructure, this allowed the Japan economy to grow and in 1966, Japan signed its final World Bank loan, and graduated from borrower status Japan’s influence and voting rights in the World Bank and IMFand other multilateral development banks increased.
Japan’s financial and policy positions become more prominent. Tokyo had assumed a leading role at the Asian Development Bank for a number of years. At the World Bank, Japan’s voting share represented about 9.
4 percent, compared with 16.3 percent for the United States. Japan also made several “special” contributions to particular World Bank programsthat raised its financial status but did not alter its voting position. undefined