Wireless human life. That is why energy harvesting for

WirelessPower Transmission Using MicrowavesS.

Saravanan, V.Sasirekha,P.Sathish, Ms.R.

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Sasikala M.EUG Scholar, UG Scholar, UGScholar, Assistant ProfessorDepartment of EEE,Kongu Engineering College,Perundurai-638060, ErodeTamilNadu, [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected]: Enormous attention is largely gained in recent yearstowards a technology called Wireless Power Transmission (WPT).The WPTharvesting techniques and its applications are generating huge renewed R&Dinterests in both academia and industries.

This project aims to imbibe WPTtechnology with high power rectenna and to attain large coverage, betterefficiency, and high power transmission compared to the previous work. Highpower rectenna was modelled and microwave magnetron has been utilized for theproduction of waves. A specially made rectenna plate is utilized to enhance theutility of wave transmission and reduces the signal losses. Hence, theeffectiveness of signal transmission is greatly achieved about 40cm power transmission.Keywords: Wireless Power Transmission(WPT), Microwave Power Transmission (MPT), Wireless Sensor Network (WSN).I.

INTRODUCTIONWireless powertransfer is the transmission of the energy over a distance without, the usagewires or cables, wherein distances involved may be short or long 1. Researchershave developed a number of techniques for moving electricity over long distanceexclusive of wires. This paper provides the techniques used for wireless powertransmission. It is a common term that refers to a number of dissimilar powertransmission technologies that use the time to shift electromagnetic fields2.Wireless power transmissionis used to power electrical devices in the case where interconnecting wires arenot achievable, hazardous, or are not convenient. For example, the life of WSNis its node which consists of several device controllers, memory, transceivers,sensors, actuators, and battery. The transceiver has four states, i.e.

1)Transmit 2) Receive 3) Idle and 4) Sleep. The major energy trouble of atransmitter of a node is consuming a great amount of power it’s receiving in anidle state, as in this state it is always being prepared to receive 3.However, thebatter has a very short lifetime and moreover in some developments owing toboth practically and economically infeasible or may involve significant resiststo human life. That is why energy harvesting for WSN in replacement of the batteryis the only and unique solution. During wireless power transfer, a transmitterdevice source, such as the mains power stripe, transmits power viaelectromagnetic fields diagonally an intervening gap to one or more receiverdevices, where it is converted back to electric power and utilized. Incommunication the objective is the transmission of information, so the amountof power reaching the receiver is insignificant as long as it is enough tofacilitate signal to noise ratio is high enough that the information can be receivedintelligibly. In wireless communication technologies, generally, only tinyamounts of power reach the receiver.

By distinction, in wireless power, the quantityof power received is the important thing, so the efficiency (fraction of the transmittedpower that is received) is the more significant parameter 2 3.MICROWAVE REGIONFigure1.1 shows that the microwaves are the radio signal which has the wavelengtharray of 1 mm to 1 meter and the frequency is 3000 MHZ to 300 GHZ. Microwavescontain wavelength that preserves is calculated in centimetres microwaves aregood quality for transmitting information from one place to another placebecause microwave energy be able to penetrate haze, snow, clouds, light rain,and smoke. Microwave radiation is still connected with an energy level that istypically nontoxic except for people with pacemakers 4.Figure 1.1 Microwave Region of ElectromagneticSpectrumII.

EXISTING METHODPossible methodsof wireless transmission of electrical power 5.A.Inductive coupling B.Laser  C.

Radio frequencyD.MicrowaveA. Inductive coupling In this whentransmitting coil is excited then it generates flux and when receiver coilreceives this flux a potential difference is developed across its terminal.This is the basic model and its efficiency is very poor hence cannot be used forlarge distance transmission 6.B. LaserIt is a devicewhich emits light based on the stimulated emission of electromagneticradiation. Power can be transmitted by means of converting electricity keen on thelaser beam. But in this the laser radiation is hazardous and conversion betweenelectricity and light is ineffective 7.

C. Radio frequencyRadio frequencysignals to direct current electrical current powered from either an internationalor ambient power source 8.III. PROPOSED METHOD: Figure 1.2 Block DiagramThefigure 1.2 shows that the purposeful block diagram of WPT consists of twosections: transmitting section and receiving section.Figure1.3 shows the transmission section, the microwave power source generatesmicrowave power which is prohibited by the electronic control circuits.

Thewaveguide circulator protects the microwave resource from the reflected power,which is connected through the co-ax waveguide adaptor. The tuner contests theimpedance between the microwave source and transmitting antenna. Then, based onthe signal broadcast direction, the attenuated signals are separated by thedirectional coupler. The transmitting antenna emits the power frequentlythrough open space to the receiving antenna.

Figure1.3 shows the receiving element, the receiving antenna receives the transmittedpower and converts the microwave power into DC power. The impedance matchingcircuit and filter is provided for locating the harvest impedance of a signalsource which is equivalent to rectifying circuit. This circuit consists ofSchottky barrier diodes which convert the received microwave power keen on DCpower.

Figure 1.3 Transmitting andReceiving SectionsWorking: Arectenna is a rectifying circuit, a special type of antenna that is used toconvert microwave energy into DC current. Its elements are usually aligned in amesh pattern, to offer a distinct appearance from most antennae. We canconstruct simple rectenna by using a Schottky diode placed between antennadipoles. The diode (a uni -direction device) rectifies the current induced inthe antenna by the microwaves signals. Rectenna is highly efficient forconverting microwave energy into electricity. In laboratory environments,efficiencies above 90% have been observed.

Scientists also tried to convertelectricity into microwave energy using inverse rectenna, but efficiencies arevery low. Only in the area of 1%. With the advent of nanotechnology and MEMS,the size of rectenna elements can be brought down to the molecular level. Arectenna consist of a mesh of dipoles and a mesh of diodes for absorbingmicrowave energy from a transmitter and converting it into electric current.RECTENNADESIGNIn emergent, this design, the PBG antenna, DGS LPF, andrectifier circuits were every first fabricated, designed, and characterizedalone. Table 1.1 Rectenna Efficieny For Various Diodes at Different Frequency Frequency (GHz) Schottky Diode Measured Efficiency (%) Calculated Efficiency (%) 2.

45 9 GaAs-W 92.5 90.5 5.8 10 Si 82 78.5 8.5 11 GaAs 62.5 66.2  The rectenna isa passive element which consists of an antenna, rectifying circuit with a lowpass filter between the antenna and rectifying diode.

Schottky Barrier diodes(GaAs-W, Si, GaAs) are usually used in therectifying circuit due to the fast reverse recovery time and lower forwardvoltage drop and good RF characteristics.The rectenna efficiency for variousdiodes at a different frequency is shown in table 1.1.Figure 1.4 Rectenna DesignFigure 1.

4 shows the rectenna used in the project. Rectennahas divided two copper plates with Schottky diode which acts as a resistorbetween two plates. Likewise, we have positioned 10 setups in parallel suchthat we have placed 10 resistors in parallel which intone act as the conductorwith high absorption power since resistors in parallel act as a conductor.RESULTSAND OBSERVATIONA. Stage 1Initially, the circuit has been connected and a project wasmade to run. Firstly an incandescent lamp is used which needs high power butthe magnetron emits only less radiation because it is in open condition andtherefore the lamp does not glow.Figure 1.

4 Initial Stages withoutWaveguide CirculatorB. Stage 2In order  to  make the radiation  high ,the entiresetup is placed in a closed container which makes  the electron  to move  faster. Therefore, the incandescent lamp into enclosed surface like micro ovenand this increase the radiation level in micro oven, the lamp glows.Figure 1.5 Entire Setup Inside the MicroOvenC.  Stage 3Finally,waveguide circulator is used as an enclosed surface to send the radiations in aparticular direction at certain distance. So, the high watts incandescent lampis replaced by the low watts CFL lamp and the output has been obtained as shownin figure 1.

6. Figure 1.6 Using WaveguideCirculator         Table 1. 2 Distance Covered Vs Voltage S.No Distance(cm) Voltage(volts) 1 35 32 2 50 30 3 65 22 4 80 18 5 100 8  Intable 1.

2 we have presented the wireless power transmission with distance andvoltage in which when the distance increases the voltage get decreased. This isshown in figure1.5. The decrease in voltage absorbed by the rectenna is due to distortionof microwaves in the air medium.

   Figure 1.5 DistanceVs Voltage CurveIV.ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGESA. ADVANTAGES1.

    Entirely eradicate the existinghigh-power transmission line towers, cables etc…2.    The transmission and distribution costbecomes less.3.    Hence, the efficiency of this methodis very much higher than wired transmission.4.    The power failure as a result ofshort circuit and fault of cables would never be present.5.    The power can be transmitted to theplaces where the wired transmission is not a feasible.

6.   Capabilityto charge vehicles such as for industrial vehicles and golf carts. 7.    Substantiate and alter to loads. B.

DISADVANTAGES1. Still under production and development.2. It does not give sufficientenergy to charge          enormous vehicles and types of equipment.

3.  Transmitting distance is unreliable.4.  Heat loss takes place.5. The intervention of microwaveswith a present        signal.

V. APPLICATIONS1.   Used in cordlesstools, automatic wireless charging for mobile robots and instrument thiseliminates complex mechanism.2.   Easy and neatInstallation – there is no cable running here and there, just start up thewireless device.

3.   Mobility -within the wireless range user device can be moved easily.4.

   The ability of our technology to transferpower efficiently, safely and over distance can improve products by making themmore reliable, convenient, and environmentally friendly.  VI. CONCLUSIONWireless Power Transmission (WPT)was   successfully achieved up to thedistance of 1 meter and beyond with the help of the high power rectenna andproposed with higher lumens. It is difficult to find inductors and capacitorsthat are capable of working at higher power levels. However, safety is neededto be concern for the further extension of the project and modification is requiredfor higher end design. Configuration on the cost factor and design constraints,including noise factor are to be considered and suggested to concern for thefurther development.  REFERENCES1Wireless power transmission, A.

Vijay Kumar, P.Niklesh,T.Naveen, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA). 2Review Paper on Wireless Power Transmission, S.D.Rankhamb, A. P.

Mane, International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR). 3WirelessPower Transmission Using Microwaves, Jayshree Sonawane 1, Sonal Benare2, InternationalJournal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering, Vol.5, Issue 3, March 2017.  4Wireless charging of mobile phone using microwave, PriyaA. Rewaskar, Prof. Dinesh Datar, International Journal of Computer Science andMobile Computing, Vol.3 Issue.4, April- 2014, pg.

427-432. 5Review papers on Wireless Power Transmission, Yogesh Parmar, Amit Patel, JayantShah, International Journal of Scientific Research Engineering & Technology(IJSRET), and ISSN 2278 – 0882 Volume 4, Issue 11, November 2015. 6Wireless PowerTransmission: An Innovative Idea,  VikashChoudhary, Satendar Pal Singh ,  VikashKumar and 4 Deepak Prashar, International Journal of Educational Planning . ISSN 2249-3093 Volume 1, Number 3 (2011), pp. 203-210. 7Wireless PowerTransmission to UAV using LASER Beaming Prem Anand T P, R.Pandiarajan, P.Raju,International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Research, ISSN 0973-4562Vol.

5 No.1 (2015) 8SecuredWireless Power Transmission Using Radio Frequency Signal, B. Renil Randy,M.Hariharan, and R. Arasa Kumar, International Journal of Information Sciencesand Techniques (IJIST) Vol.

4, No.3, May 2014. 9Efficient 2.45 GHz Rectenna Design with High HarmonicRejection for Wireless Power Transmission, Zied Harouni, Lotfi Osman and AliGharsallah, IJCSI International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Vol. 7,Issue 5, September 2010. 105.8-GHz Circularly PolarizedDual-Diode Rectenna and Rectenna Array for Microwave Power Transmission, Yu-JiunRen and Kai Chang, Fellow, IEEE, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory andTechniques, VOL. 54, NO.

4, APRIL 2006. 11A Compact Dual-Polarized 8.51-GHz Rectenna forHigh-Voltage (50 V) Actuator Applications, Larry W. Epp, Member, IEEE, Abdur R.Khan, Hugh K.

Smith, and R. Peter Smith, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theoryand Techniques, VOL. 48, NO. 1, JANUARY 2000.