When the child starts to gain language? Hestarts earlier than most of us think, in his mother’s womb, where he gets acquaintedand be familiar with the rhythms of the sounds around him and ends much laterthan we think too, because there is an end of sound and grammar acquisition,but there is always some new world learn, therefore, language acquisition is anongoing process that accompanied us through the different stages of life. Manyscientists studied child languages acquisition and developed theories aboutvocabulary, discourse, and grammar acquisition which is not just applicableonly to the English language, but also to other languages too. Literacy is notrestrained in its use on education or at work, it is part of our everyday lifein malls, restaurants, and even within the same families where literacypractice is encouraged to help the child to grasp and understand the use oflanguage, to have confidence in delivering his messages properly in written andspoken form, and to express his intentions and personality according to theimage he wants to deliver to the people around him.The orthography system of the English hasits downsides which cause some difficulties that the child needs to conquer inorder to have a good command over the language, but it has its upsides thatsimplify the learning of this language.
Currently, English is an internationallanguage that is not just used by native speakers but also by non-nativespeakers. Through the course of learning English there are identical ordivergent problems that both speakers face because two-third of the childrenaround the world are born in bilingual environment.The language is among the first humaninventions, the study of language in its wondering nature and complexity andhow the human being is able to perceive it is still contentious matter betweenscientists, to understand language acquisition we have to take bits and piecesof this jigsaw and try to bring those pieces together to understand the biggerpicture that make us unique. Language is amean of communicating and expressing thoughts and ideas. The need of a spokenlanguage emerged first by making sounds that represent pictures which addressthe auditory system, then letters and words that address the ophthalmic systemof the human being. The necessity of a writing system aroused from the need torecord events and communicate it with different people across the differentperiod of time. Different writing systems were developed across the world whichvaries in its complexity.(Webster,1806) It relates, letters, syllables and sentenceto communicate language through speaking and writing.
The child starts learning language byimitation and exploring through babbling, then he uses a one word sentence,next a two word sentence, and later a whole sentence where he begins to expandhis language which is not confined to speaking, but also to reading and writingskills too(ww.englanglanguage acquisition.weebly.com), so Speech is important in developing language skills,improving vocabulary, receiving and producing language, furthermore,understanding the connection between spoken and written language is essentialto organize and deliver the meaning of the message in a more efficient andcoherent way.(ww.lob.
ca). Orthography is “the accepted way of spelling andwriting.” (ww.cambridgedictionary.org)”The art of writing words with the proper letteraccording to standard use “(ww.
meriam-webster.com) . The Englishlanguage is a syllabic language and has its characteristics,: it consists oftwenty-six letters written from right to left in a sideways top to bottom. In aperfect language every letter corresponds to a sound, however, some of themcorrespond with more than one sound. (Webster, 1806).
The inconsistencies in theEnglish orthography made English a challenging language to acquire even forchildren who are mono-lingual English native speakers, because manyinconsistencies were not just at the level of the letter and their presentationof more than one sound, but also at the level of words. Historicallythe English language is a dialect; its position was elevated and became aninternational language spoken by many tongues as a mother language or second orforeign language, it came into contact with English like Latin, German, French,Danish which brought many words into the language and changing other wordsmeaning pronunciation and use, For example: the word colonel has French andItalian origin, In French, it is coronel, but in Italian it is colonello, nowit is written in the Italian way and spelled in the French way. Building onwhat is previously written the grapheme-morpheme relationship in English isopaque due to the loan words, which were largely absorbed by the Englishlanguage causing frozen spelling for a massive amount of word which makes the predictionof its pronunciation and writing very hard.
(ww.youtube.com) There are otherdifficulties that face not just children but adult too, for example some soundsstayed or disappeared ,the /f/ sound in words like: cough, enough, through orthought, other sounds were lost at the beginning of the words in words like:wrong and knee, some letters become silent when pronounced for e.g. Psychology,Island. Daughter, furthermore words have swallowed syllables e.
g. Vegetable ispronounced vegtable (ww.thought.
com), and some English letters give many differentpronunciations for the same letter for e.g. the words bear, ear and heart.The English orthography stabilized through thecenturies mostly because of the printing invention by Guttenberg, which helpedin the dissemination of English and the role lexicographer who document thepronunciation and writing of millions of word albeit the difference betweendifferent standard English like standard American, standard British …Etc.
(ww.youtube.com)The English orthography has its positive sides, the spelling system help todifferentiate homophones in words, for example: alter and altar, morphemes likeinflections stay the same with different words e.g. sides, derived.
(allington,mayor,2012)Studies of the various aspects of language led to the developmentof new methods of teaching the English language based on different perspectivesthat was adopted by many institutions and was pointed out for its efficiencyeven among parents, one of those perspectives is social perspective, whichdepends on the need and the necessity for the child to express his emotions,needs, and his social identity in the society, and since spoken and writtenlanguage are closely related literacy becomes a part of a wider communicativepractice, using literacy in this sense involves exchanging knowledge with a social-network,parents or caregivers who have their essential role in the way children acquirelanguage, getting involved in these practices will help the children to gainliteracy in a more effective way like storybook reading which studies shownthat it supports the child language development, and literacy practice later inlife.(ww.2.sfasu.edu)There are many other reasons that affecthow child literacy evolved, which involve the culture of his parents, the societythat he is surrounded by and the economic status of his parents, the level oftheir education, the school’s environment, the quality of learning, social class,religion, the position of the child in the family, and how he deals with thedifficulties that he faces which is part of the child psychology.
The literacy of the child at an early ageis strongly connected to learning the alphabet it is the first predictor to hisor her reading and writing accomplishments in his first formal schooling process that isintertwined with the parent’s role in involving their children in practices ona frequent basis with multiple genres of literacy like children’s fiction oradventurous stories, newspapers adds…etc, another key role in acquiring thelanguage in children is their relationship with their parents and their parentbeliefs about literacy.Many activities are used by parents at home or in schoolthat facilitate literacy practice as a social activity like engaging childrenin songs, hymen’s books, spelling contests, flash cards and interacting withchildren in conversation to see how they understand literacy and literarytexts, furthermore the need to encourage children emotionally and physically tolearn written and spoken language alter the child perspective toward learningand make it more appealing to him(ww.2.sfasu.edu).The literacy practice of English also existed inbilingual communities which is also affected by religion, social class, schoolsparent’s educational level.
The bilingual children may have in common impedimentswith native speakers or different problems in learning English for example iftheir other language is written from right to left, not from left to right theymay start writing English from right to left, or they may think about thesubject in one language and write it in another or they may code-switch duringwriting.Finally, every human being have the right to use thelanguage according to his or her need, so does the child who wants to expresshis thoughts, needs, and emotion to convey his persona and pursue what hereally wants in life. English is an international language today that is usedin many disciplines of studies at the national and the international level, soknowing its diverse aspects, the advantages and the disadvantages helpedcreating new ways, books, programs that help the children to learn it moreeasily and leave the obsolete methods of learning.