What is esteem? The term ‘Esteem’means, an appreciation and respect for oneself. Furthermore, it is a feeling ofconfidence and satisfaction towards a person’s life, for example; physicalappearance. (Bailey, 2003). Presently digital technologieshave gained the ability to control the mindsets of people and theirself-esteem. (Self-esteem describes someone’s self-confidence, contempt inappearance, self-worth, self-dignity and integrity.
(J. Mruk, 2003). Socialmedia in particular has a way of affecting some female Nigerian students in theuniversity through a social media platform called “Instagram” (a freeapplication that allow users share photos, videos, gain followers and likes.(Dictionary, 2017). Instagram is one of the most used application worldwide.
Inthe month of September 2017, the number of Instagram users had reached800million. (Statista, 2017). Instagramhas a powerful effect, which causes an unconscious impulse low self-esteem forsome Nigerian students in the university. Through this platform, someuniversity female students get the license to be hurt and sometimes theydevelop a skewed self-image forcing these students to lose focus in theiracademics. However, this research seeks to find how Instagram affects theself-esteem of some female Nigerian students in the University and may beproviding solutions to help the affected student gain a higher self-esteem and focusingon their academics.
RESEARCHTOPIC/PROBLEM The research problem is concerned about what students can do to stop Instagramfrom causing low self-esteem for them. The chosen topic is personal feelingwhich individuals experience when they become triggered by what they see onInstagram. For instance, Instagram affects the self-esteem of most female usersof the application around the world which usually results to a state ofdepression. (Koman, 2017).
Consequently, this researchwill focus only on female Nigerian students in the university that Instagramhas perpetually destabilized their emotions and subsequently cause lowself-esteem for them. Generally, females are perceived to be timid than malesin the society. It is bad if a person’s esteem is low as it may generateproblems. Such as; inferiority complex, emotional instability, repression,insecurity, less self-regard and commonly depression. Researchers said “menreported higher self-esteem than women.
” (Alter, 2017). Depressionis categorized as a mental health problem. Depression is harmful to the health.According to researchers “depression and loneliness were expected to decreaseover the course of the study, while self-esteem and social support werepredicted to increase.
” (Journals.sagepub.com, 2017). Thus, some students beginto have low self-esteem when they do not have their desired number offollowers, likes and comments on Instagram. “Young women often needthe ‘reassurance’ of likes and shares online, and are faced with images of’perfect’ bodies.” (Campbell, 2017).
The purpose of this study is to know whythe female students have allowed Instagram to take custody of their feelingsand emotions which constantly makes them feel depressed and also affect themacademically. LITRATURE REVIEW One of the most important thingabout self-esteem is that humans have a “need for self-esteem” cited in(Krämer and Winter, 2014) by (Schlenker, 1980, p. 88). Accordingto (Kristin 2003) self-esteem concise 3 features. Firstly, the essenceto feel appreciated by oneself and refuse to seek validation from other people.Secondly, self-esteem originates from within and can be likewise affected bysocial factors, for example, peer gathering. Lastly, self-esteem works alltogether with a person’s reflections, conduct, sentiments and actions.
Thisreview will give credible and clear insight of the topic. The aim and purposeof the review Firstly, is to establish theoretical framework how Instagramaffects the self-esteem of female Nigerian students in the university.Secondly, the aim is to give definitions and terminology of key terms such as;self-esteem, media, Instagram, dopamine, neurotransmitter, inferioritycomplex, Norepinephrine, peer pressure, oppressed andisolation. Thirdly, to identify studies and contextual investigation to supportthe topic. Finally, to define and establish the research topic. According to Krämer and Winter, (2014, pp.106-107) ‘Nowadays anyone canappear in the media and “broadcast” himself or herself to the globalized world.
What is media? ‘The term, media which achieved broad popularity in 2005, isusually applied to describe the various forms of media content that arepublicly available and created by end-users.’ (Kaplan and Haenlein,2010). According to Wilson and Lawan, (2015,pp. 48-51) ‘The media has changed the ways people organizetheir lives and participate in various spheres of society.’ In other words, themedia is intensively redefining peoples approach to life. Accordingto Kietzmann etal., (2011, pp. 244-250) ‘Given the increasing connectivity of people onthe move, this presence bridges the real and the virtual.
‘ Which means it iscreating barriers and changing the way people relate with family and closefriends. In other words, it is generally seen as the use of anything thatenables the flow of digital information or digital communication. Nonetheless,it is a social approach that allows individuals share their day to day life onsocial media applications such as; Instagram, Facebook, snapchat and twitter.
This review will focus on how Instagram, which is one of the mostfamous and most used social media applications in the world. (Statista,2017), has gained the access to be very useful for some individuals asthey use it as a room to promote themselves. Nevertheless, the same Instagramhas gained the license to hurt the self-esteem of some people. ‘Instagramis all about visual sharing, so everybody’s main intention is to share and findonly the best photos and videos.’ (Moreau, 2017) Consequently, Instagram stimulatesthe idea and thoughts for some female Nigerians students compare themselveswith others on the platform. These causes certain pressure on these affectedfemales to showcase another part of them which they are not. For example, byposting edited pictures. These affected students tend to seek validation byother Instagram users, by getting certain amount of likes or comments.
On theother hand, likes and comments releases dopamine to the brain and body.Dopamine is a chemical that is associated with pleasure, happiness, love,organism and good mood. When the chemical is released, it unconsciouslycreates an addiction to Instagram (Yates, 2017). Hence, if the desired likesand comments are not satisfying.
It psychologically controls the emotions ofsome females and aggravate low self-esteem. It has been argued by scholars thatsocial media can affect the self-esteem of a person. According to ValkenburgPh.D.
et al., (2006, pp.584-585) if the objective of social media is based onthe likes and comments to assure a person’s appearance is good, they will bedisappointed and it is likely that the utilization of such assurance willinfluence the measurements of confidence that will affect theirself-esteem. When a female has low self-esteem, neurotransmitteris defined as ‘a neurotransmitter is a messenger of neurologic informationfrom one cell to another.’ (MedicineNet, 2017). It releases achemical in the brain called Norepinephrine.
According to Briley and Chantal(2011), when the chemical is released (Norepinephrine) it causes anxiety, highblood pressure and depression. ‘Depression is a common mental disorder thatcauses people to experience depressed mood, loss of interest or pleasure,feelings of guilt or low self-worth, disturbed sleep or appetite, low energy,and poor concentration.’ (Mental Health Foundation 2017). Female Nigerianstudents in the university who are affected by Instagram, are most likely goingto experience depression. Therefore, it can possibly affect their academicperformance. For instance, they may be highly distracted.
Hence, dopamine thechemical which is released in the brain, it ‘provides the drive to focus and beproductive.’ (Health and 7 Ways to Boost Dopamine, 2017). And when theNorepinephrine and dopamine are released at the same time, they bothintersect. However, it can result to lack of concentration. Hence, astudent can lose focus in her academics, because of the effect of Instagrameither by not getting the desired likes, comments, or seeing other people’spictures which therefore, results to inferiority complex. Inferiority complex is a feeling ofinadequacy, which is expressed through introversion reticence or timidity.According to Moritz, Werner and Collani (2006)’It has been theorized that patients with persecutory delusions display alack of covert self-esteem (formerly termed the `inferiority complex’).
Furthermore, as inferiority complex is associated with self-esteem, it cantake charge of how an individual feel and herby destabilize their emotions itcan possibly affect their attitude towards the things they do and their life ingeneral. It can also expose an individual to feel they are being criticized orrejected. Moreover, this can as well be seen as an area of concern as peoplewith inferiority complex facade their inferiority by acting superior.
Hence,not being able to express how they feel, because they might be embarrassed toshare, should be another area of concern. Why? Because this people canexperience suicidal ideation. Suicidal ideation is thoughts, andimpulse act of taking one’s own life. (Victor R and Delores E, 2005). Peoplefacing these challenges of low self-esteem, inferiority complex, repression anddepression due to Instagram, need reassurance to consume the idea of theirsuicidal thoughts. Furthermore, some female Nigerian students in the universityusually develop an attitude of being an introvert and mostly beinglonely. The main use of social media is nowignored in this modern generation, and people forget the real reasons of itsinvention and explore the negative aspects which on a contrary destroy theirself-esteem. The positive use of the social media, for example,students use social media application such as WhatsApp or Facebook to stayconnected and exchange ideas concerning their assignments or other usefulinformation.
Social media ‘offer multiple daily opportunities forconnecting with friends, classmates, and people with shared interests.'(O’Keeffe and Clarke-Pearson, 2011). The negative use of the socialmedia. For example, a girl can spend time looking atother people’s pictures and videos that they have posted and begin tofeel oppressed because they feel the individual is perfect and more beautifulthan she is. Thus, when she begins to feel oppressed, then itgenerates low self-esteem for her. Some female Nigerian students in theuniversity who have low self-esteem due to excessive use of Instagram can save themselvesthe feeling of experiencing low self-worth.
By controlling how they feel andwhat they see by using it less often. And not allowing what they see controlthem and make them have low self-esteem and begin to feel isolated. Isolated isdefined as being lonely. (Dictionary, 2017).
While the Mark Zuckerberg inventorof Instagram and owner of Facebook was designing the application, he mostlikely did not aim for it to cause low self-esteem for individuals (Oreskovic, 2016).Instagram is for the users to showcase their best visuals, like; photos, videosas well as communicating via the medium. However, Instagram is a social mediaapplication that is highly used around the world by teenagers and adults.