Unlicensed driving has become amajor concern nowadays. It is possible that drivers who do not have appropriatetraining and testing may be deficient in the knowledge and skills required todrive vehicle safely and efficiently. Also, drivers who are unauthorized mayhave less incentive to comply with road traffic laws in that they would not beinfluenced by the rewards and penalties set up under the licensing system. Onthis argument, drivers who do not hold a valid license may disregard the threatof license sanctions or the benefits of reduced insurance premium due to nothaving made a claim.
It is noticeable in the literature 1 that the term “unlicensed”is used interchangeably to mean one of the below subcategories, as follows:A) Drivers who drive but who have never possessed any formof license;B) Drivers who have previously held a license but who havebeen disqualified; andC) Drivers possessing only a provisional license but whom,nevertheless, drive unaccompanied.For many unlicensed drivers, enforcement and penalties arenot strong deterrents and in addition there are also administrative loopholes whichsome exploit. There appears to be a general laxity in the system of checkingthe validity of documents and their ownership – for example it is claimed to bestraightforward for an unlicensed driver to pass himself off as a friend (witha license) and later present the friend’s documents at a police station.
According to a survey by the AA Foundation for approximatelyhalf of all drunken driving takes place with drivers who do not have a validdriving license (Goldberg, 1997)1. Also in Sweden, unlicensed driving hasbeen estimated as the cause of 100 deaths and 2500 injuries per year at a costof more than one billion US dollars. In the USA, in 1995, more than 10,000lives were lost in fatal accidents with unlicensed drunk drivers (approximatelya quarter of all road deaths in that year). The equivalent figure in GreatBritain would therefore be over 900 deaths if this rate prevailed. An in-built system 2 in an automobile which preventssuch cases has therefore become vital.
This paper aims to introduce a hardwarearchitecture which detects the fingerprint as well as the validity of thelicense of the driver and takes a robust decision to turn on or off theignition system based on the validity. Section II describes the smart card andSection III describes the fingerprint matching algorithm. Section IV elucidatesthe architecture followed by results in Section V and conclusion in Section VI.Fingerprinting is probably the best known biometric methodof identification used for 100 years .Among all the biometrics techniques, fingerprint-basedIdentification is the oldest method that has been successfully used in numerousapplications. Everyone is known to have unique, immutable fingerprints.
Afingerprint is made of a series of ridges and furrows on the surface of thefinger. The uniqueness of a fingerprint can be determined by thepattern of ridges and furrows as well as minutiae points. Finger-scantechnology is the leading biometric authentication technology in use today withthe greatest variety of fingerprint devices presently available.Fingerscan is an authentication terminal which verifies aperson’s identity from their finger image.
When a user places their finger onthe terminals scanner the image is electronically read, analysed, and comparedwith a previously recorded image of the same finger which has been stored inthe fingerscan database.Users call up their finger image by keying in anidentification number. This ID number does not need to be classified as it isnot part of the security system it simply retrieves the image that will becompared to the users finger scan.
Fingerscan contains its own database of finger images(called templates), user privileges and authorities, and maintains a log ofevery transaction and message which it records. The system can be accessedthrough laptop networked to a PC,or connected via a modem to a remote host.The algorithm that was implementedfor finger print matching in this research work is discussed below. Anil Jainet al 3 proposed a hybrid matching algorithm for matching.
Our algorithm isdescribed in detail below. Step 1:Histogram Equalization:Histogram equalization is to expand the pixel valuedistribution of an image so as to increase the perceptional information. Theoriginal histogram of a fingerprint image has the bimodal type the histogramafter the histogram equalization occupies all the range from 0 to 255 and thevisualization effect is enhanced.
Step 2: FourierTransform:Because the image in the Fourier domain is decomposed intoits sinusoidal components, it is easy to examine or process certain frequenciesof the image, thus influencing the geometric structure in the spatial domain. Step 3: Binarization:A locally adaptive binarization method is performed tobinarize the fingerprint image. Such a named method comes from the mechanism oftransforming a pixel value to 1 if the value is larger than the mean intensityvalue of the current block (16×16) to which the pixel belong. Step 4:Direction:Field orientation and filtered field orientation map computation,which consists of the calculation of the dominant direction of ridges andvalleys in each local region. Step 5: Regionof Interest (ROI):Two Morphological operations called ‘OPEN’ and ‘CLOSE’ areadopted. The ‘OPEN’ operation can expand images and remove peaks introduced bybackground noise.
The ‘CLOSE’ operation can shrink images and eliminate smallcavities. Step 6:Thinning:The built-in Morphological thinning function in MATLAB isused for ridge thinning. The thinned ridge map is then filtered by other threeMorphological operations to remove some H breaks, isolated points and spikes. Step 7: Matching:A bounding box is placed around each template minutia. Ifthe minutia to be matched is within the rectangle box and the direction discrepancybetween them is very small, then the two minutia pair is regarded as a matchedminutia pair. Each minutia in the template image either has no matched minutiaor has only one corresponding minutia. The number of matched minutia pair iscalculated as percentage of matching.
C.MICROCONTROLLER Low-power,high-performance 4 CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8KB of ISP flash memory isused. The device uses Microchip high-density, nonvolatile memory technology andis compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 instruction set and pinout. On-chip flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammedin-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. This powerfulmicrocontroller is suitable for many embedded control applications.
D.GSM MODULE Theproposed system provides advanced authentication with GSM facilities which enablesthe user to receive an SMS indicating the successful or unsuccessful attemptsto unlock the vehicle. If the fingerprint imprinted does not match with the fingerprinton the license then the user of the vehicle gets intimated regarding theunsuccessful attempt via a SMS.E.
DC MOTOR The DCmotor 5 which is connected to the microcontroller gets ignited once thesuccessful fingerprint matching occurs. If not the GSM sends SMS to the userintimating the unauthorized access of the vehicle. This helps in reducing thevehicle theft where the motor does not start unless the exact fingerprint isimprinted.F. BATTERY The 12Vbattery provides the enough amount of power required to ignite the DC motorwhich is connected to the microcontroller. G.
LCD DISPLAY The LCDdisplay indicates the successful or unsuccessful attempts to access thevehicle.The flow of the project starts with the imprinting thefingerprint on the fingerprint module which is attached to the vehicle, thenthe processor checks for thefingerprint matching of the registeredand the imprinted fingerprints, if both the fingerprints matches then it goesto the next process of checking the expiration of the license ,if not it sendsa warning message to the user indicating unauthorized access of the vehicle, inthe next process of checking for expiration , if the license is expired itdisplays a message on the LCD indicating the expiration of the license. If not,next process of checking the license for the particular vehicle starts, if yesthe engine gets ignited and the access to the vehicle is given to the user,else displays an ERROR message on the LCD and also sends a warning to the userof the vehicle. IV.CONCLUSION The above input and outputanalysis of the proposed system proves that the vehicle can be ensured that itis been driven only by the authorized persons.
The system also providesfacility for the learner’s licenses to drive by keeping a licensed person nearthem. It also gives time to get the system repaired if any malfunction exists.In cars, it also ensures that the seat belt is worn by the driver, so that itadds the safety feature to vehicles. Though implementation of the proposedsystem may take time, it would be of great use for the safety of drivers andirregularities can be kept at check without any loopholes.
The developedprototype serves as a key to drive future research, geared towards developing amore robust and embedded real-time fingerprint based licensing systems invehicles.