Unlicensed driving has become a
major concern nowadays. It is possible that drivers who do not have appropriate
training and testing may be deficient in the knowledge and skills required to
drive vehicle safely and efficiently. Also, drivers who are unauthorized may
have less incentive to comply with road traffic laws in that they would not be
influenced by the rewards and penalties set up under the licensing system. On
this argument, drivers who do not hold a valid license may disregard the threat
of license sanctions or the benefits of reduced insurance premium due to not
having made a claim. It is noticeable in the literature 1 that the term “unlicensed”
is used interchangeably to mean one of the below subcategories, as follows:
A) Drivers who drive but who have never possessed any form
B) Drivers who have previously held a license but who have
been disqualified; and
C) Drivers possessing only a provisional license but whom,
nevertheless, drive unaccompanied.
For many unlicensed drivers, enforcement and penalties are
not strong deterrents and in addition there are also administrative loopholes which
some exploit. There appears to be a general laxity in the system of checking
the validity of documents and their ownership – for example it is claimed to be
straightforward for an unlicensed driver to pass himself off as a friend (with
a license) and later present the friend’s documents at a police station.
According to a survey by the AA Foundation for approximately
half of all drunken driving takes place with drivers who do not have a valid
driving license (Goldberg, 1997)1. Also in Sweden, unlicensed driving has
been estimated as the cause of 100 deaths and 2500 injuries per year at a cost
of more than one billion US dollars. In the USA, in 1995, more than 10,000
lives were lost in fatal accidents with unlicensed drunk drivers (approximately
a quarter of all road deaths in that year). The equivalent figure in Great
Britain would therefore be over 900 deaths if this rate prevailed.
An in-built system 2 in an automobile which prevents
such cases has therefore become vital. This paper aims to introduce a hardware
architecture which detects the fingerprint as well as the validity of the
license of the driver and takes a robust decision to turn on or off the
ignition system based on the validity. Section II describes the smart card and
Section III describes the fingerprint matching algorithm. Section IV elucidates
the architecture followed by results in Section V and conclusion in Section VI.
Fingerprinting is probably the best known biometric method
of identification used for 100 years .Among all the biometrics techniques, fingerprint-based
Identification is the oldest method that has been successfully used in numerous
applications. Everyone is known to have unique, immutable fingerprints. A
fingerprint is made of a series of ridges and furrows on the surface of the
The uniqueness of a fingerprint can be determined by the
pattern of ridges and furrows as well as minutiae points. Finger-scan
technology is the leading biometric authentication technology in use today with
the greatest variety of fingerprint devices presently available.
Fingerscan is an authentication terminal which verifies a
person’s identity from their finger image. When a user places their finger on
the terminals scanner the image is electronically read, analysed, and compared
with a previously recorded image of the same finger which has been stored in
the fingerscan database.Users call up their finger image by keying in an
identification number. This ID number does not need to be classified as it is
not part of the security system it simply retrieves the image that will be
compared to the users finger scan.
Fingerscan contains its own database of finger images
(called templates), user privileges and authorities, and maintains a log of
every transaction and message which it records. The system can be accessed
through laptop networked to a PC,or connected via a modem to a remote host.
The algorithm that was implemented
for finger print matching in this research work is discussed below. Anil Jain
et al 3 proposed a hybrid matching algorithm for matching. Our algorithm is
described in detail below.
Histogram equalization is to expand the pixel value
distribution of an image so as to increase the perceptional information. The
original histogram of a fingerprint image has the bimodal type the histogram
after the histogram equalization occupies all the range from 0 to 255 and the
visualization effect is enhanced.
Step 2: Fourier
Because the image in the Fourier domain is decomposed into
its sinusoidal components, it is easy to examine or process certain frequencies
of the image, thus influencing the geometric structure in the spatial domain.
Step 3: Binarization:
A locally adaptive binarization method is performed to
binarize the fingerprint image. Such a named method comes from the mechanism of
transforming a pixel value to 1 if the value is larger than the mean intensity
value of the current block (16×16) to which the pixel belong.
Field orientation and filtered field orientation map computation,
which consists of the calculation of the dominant direction of ridges and
valleys in each local region.
Step 5: Region
of Interest (ROI):
Two Morphological operations called ‘OPEN’ and ‘CLOSE’ are
adopted. The ‘OPEN’ operation can expand images and remove peaks introduced by
background noise. The ‘CLOSE’ operation can shrink images and eliminate small
The built-in Morphological thinning function in MATLAB is
used for ridge thinning. The thinned ridge map is then filtered by other three
Morphological operations to remove some H breaks, isolated points and spikes.
Step 7: Matching:
A bounding box is placed around each template minutia. If
the minutia to be matched is within the rectangle box and the direction discrepancy
between them is very small, then the two minutia pair is regarded as a matched
minutia pair. Each minutia in the template image either has no matched minutia
or has only one corresponding minutia. The number of matched minutia pair is
calculated as percentage of matching.
high-performance 4 CMOS 8-bit microcontroller with 8KB of ISP flash memory is
used. The device uses Microchip high-density, nonvolatile memory technology and
is compatible with the industry-standard 80C51 instruction set and pinout.
On-chip flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed
in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. This powerful
microcontroller is suitable for many embedded control applications.
proposed system provides advanced authentication with GSM facilities which enables
the user to receive an SMS indicating the successful or unsuccessful attempts
to unlock the vehicle.
If the fingerprint imprinted does not match with the fingerprint
on the license then the user of the vehicle gets intimated regarding the
unsuccessful attempt via a SMS.
motor 5 which is connected to the microcontroller gets ignited once the
successful fingerprint matching occurs. If not the GSM sends SMS to the user
intimating the unauthorized access of the vehicle. This helps in reducing the
vehicle theft where the motor does not start unless the exact fingerprint is
battery provides the enough amount of power required to ignite the DC motor
which is connected to the microcontroller.
G. LCD DISPLAY
display indicates the successful or unsuccessful attempts to access the
The flow of the project starts with the imprinting the
fingerprint on the fingerprint module which is attached to the vehicle, then
the processor checks for the
fingerprint matching of the registered
and the imprinted fingerprints, if both the fingerprints matches then it goes
to the next process of checking the expiration of the license ,if not it sends
a warning message to the user indicating unauthorized access of the vehicle, in
the next process of checking for expiration , if the license is expired it
displays a message on the LCD indicating the expiration of the license. If not,
next process of checking the license for the particular vehicle starts, if yes
the engine gets ignited and the access to the vehicle is given to the user,
else displays an ERROR message on the LCD and also sends a warning to the user
of the vehicle.
The above input and output
analysis of the proposed system proves that the vehicle can be ensured that it
is been driven only by the authorized persons. The system also provides
facility for the learner’s licenses to drive by keeping a licensed person near
them. It also gives time to get the system repaired if any malfunction exists.
In cars, it also ensures that the seat belt is worn by the driver, so that it
adds the safety feature to vehicles. Though implementation of the proposed
system may take time, it would be of great use for the safety of drivers and
irregularities can be kept at check without any loopholes. The developed
prototype serves as a key to drive future research, geared towards developing a
more robust and embedded real-time fingerprint based licensing systems in