UnderstandingCanada’s current political system is mainly influenced by the British parliamentarysystem and very firmly established in tradition. Canadas powers are dividedbetween 10 parts (Ontario, Alberta, British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba,Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, andNewfoundland and Labrador), and a central federal government. Canada is afederation, the powers of the federal government and the colonies are placed inthe Constitution. The control of the three territories (Yukon, NorthwestTerritories and Nunavut) are advised on them by the federal government andaren’t cherished in the British North America Act (BNA Act).
The BNA Act madeCanada a constitutional monarchy, whose sovereignty is what makes up thepowerful monarch of the United Kingdom, who Canada’s head of state is currentlyElizabeth II. The Constitution and the BNA Act in 1867 united three Britishprovinces: The Province of Canada (comparing Upper Canada, which is nowOntario, and Lower Canada, which is now Quebec), New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.The parliamenthowever abides by two houses, where one has more of an upper power than theother. The Senate (Upper House) includes 105 members selected by the primeminister and representing all regions of the country. The House of Commons(Lower House) includes 308 elected members. There are threemain parts to parliament, a sovereign; which is either a King or Queen who isrepresented in Canada by the governor general.
A senate is the dwelling ofsenators which are chosen by the Governor General under the arrangement of thePrime Minister and they will serve until age 75. House of Commons, arepresentative chamber made up of members of parliament elected by the peopletraditionally every 4 years. Both the senate and the House of Commons considerand review bills (proposal for new laws). Granted by Governor General on behalfof the sovereign, no bill can become a law until it has approval from both ofthese chambers received royal accent. The leader of the political party withthe most voted seats in the House of Commons is proposed by the governorgeneral to form the government after every election.
The leader of this partybecomes the prime minister of Canada, the Prime Minister also chooses theminister of the crown mostly from the members of the House of Commons. Thesecabinet members are generally called the cabinet collectively and areresponsible for working the Federal Government departments. Along with thePrime Minister the cabinet makes important decisions about how the country isgoverned which includes budgeting and proposition of new laws, their decisioncan be questioned by any of the members in the house of commons. Usually themost members of the opposite party in the house of commons is the officialaction or her/his majesty’s royal opposition. Canada has multiplecourts that are suited to handle matters in a variety of areas. The Supremecourt of Canada, is the courts final appeal of Canada’s justice system, as wellas the country’s highest court.
The federal court of Canada deals with mattersconcerning the federal government. Other provincial courts exist in eachprovince the handle lesser offensives.