Topic 1: Cybercrime and increasing the efficiency of cybersecurity The term cybercrime is defined as a crime in which a computer or any other technological device is the object of the crime. People that are associated with cybercrime are mainly referred to as hackers or cybercriminals who use technology to their advantage by using their devices to access personal information, commit online thievery, and etc. In recent times, cyber terrorism has shown a lot of growth in society with technological enhancements within worldwide nations. Cyberterrorism is defined as where cybercriminals use the internet to conduct a sequence of violent acts that could potentially result in death or significant harm. As time has progressed, cybercriminals have become more complex and are in an attempt to steal valuable things such as financial data, health records, personal information, and etc. Preventing cybercrime has been a major task for the government for many years now. Systems such as Malware and Antivirus software have somewhat helped to prevent cyber attacks but have failed in recent times because hackers have become much more intelligent on being able to use encryption to access data. In recent times, citizens worldwide have shown a high dependency on the internet and the use of technology which has resulted in new revenue streams, but this dependency has given more opportunities for hackers to utilize. Blockchain, which is a form of cyberdefense, has shown potential in helping reduce the effective rate of cybercrime. Recent articles and cyber attacks have shown that 2017 was a pivotal year in cybersecurity. The past year has helped advance in cyberdefense by implementing new systems such as the Blockchain which has helped increase responses to cyber crimes. In recent times, countries such as the United States of America have come out with a rate of 23% on cybercrime, China with a rate of 9%, Germany with a rate of 6%, Britain with a rate of 5%, and Brazil with a rate of 4%. These 5 countries rank as the top five for high cybercrime rates. The United States of America is by far the country with the highest cybercrime rate due to the country’s usage rate in technology. Brazil is currently in a rebuild mode in terms of their cyberspace architecture. Unlike countries such as the US and China, Brazil lacks more in technology so they are more prone to cyber attacks because of their weak security. According to a Foreign Affairs article, at least 45 percent of all banking transactions are digital. This rate is very concerning because 58 percent of Brazil’s citizens are connected to the internet, and their lack of cybersecurity makes them more susceptible to online theft. Brazil definitely needs to improve their sentencing for cyber attacks because outside of the nation, no one is aware of all these cyber attacks in Brazil which makes the country more vulnerable than it already is. In current news, Brazil is involved with Russia’s new ‘independent internet system’ which helps protect Brazilian networks and act as a better guard than its previous defense system. Brazil is definitely in need of better cyber security, but they won’t be able to address the issues if it is not thoroughly discussed. Currently, there is a new defense system known as the Blockchain which increases the response rate to cyber crimes. The blockchain is only known for securing financial transactions so it might not be useful for guarding other things like identity theft or online attacks. Increasing the defense system for Brazil’s internet is definitely the main concern but the enhancement of cyber defense cannot be achievable if not discussed enough. In the past, Brazil has kept their cybercrime reports a secret and have not leaked much to other nations. This is due to the fact that Brazil does not want to ruin its’ reputation or drive away any incoming foreigners. More exposure is an important need for Brazil if they want to increase their security for internet especially because Brazil has recently doubled down on its cybersecurity architecture, meaning that the internet’s build is starting to weaken as time progresses. Technology will only advance as we go into the future, and so will a human’s brain. A possible solution to counter cyber crime would be for companies to partner with multiple cyber security organizations. Although that is an obvious solution, it can really help reduce the cyber crime rates worldwide. If companies choose not to partner with defensive internet systems, cyber crime rates will only grow. Another possible solution for countering cyber attacks is to enhance already implemented softwares such as Malware, McAfee, Norton Security, and etc. These security softwares have proven to be quite effective throughout the internet and as time progresses these softwares will only advance. Topic 2: Combating the threat of International TerrorismThe term terrorism is used to describe violent acts that are conducted by people with a corrupt mindset. These people, who are known as terrorists, are fond of causing terror to other people so they can wreak havoc. Many wonder what is the main factor that drives a person to wreak havoc and kill others in the process. According to an NY Times article dated back to 2016, terrorists are inspired by Islamic ideology or their hatred of American policy to carry out their attacks. Although some use religion as their driving factor to launch these attacks, some cause terror due to a failure that they may have experienced in the past and some are mentally unstable. There are many infamous terrorist organizations that still exist to this day. Such as Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), Irish Republican Army, Naxal, Al-Nusa, ISIS, Kurdistan Worker’s Party (PKK), and etc. There are of course several other organizations but as of 2017, these are the top five terrorist groups worldwide. The terrorist was coined in 1794 after the Reign of Terror in France in which several people were killed over a period of 11 months. Since 1794, terrorism has only shown growth and no downfall over time. Although there have been times where organizations would go incognito, they would eventually sprout back and cause terror somewhere in America. Terrorist attacks are very frequent even though most of them are not known of because of lack of media. In the Middle Eastern region, there is almost an attack every day, but it is unknown because of no spread of word. Unlike Brazil’s cybersecurity issue, terrorism cannot be solved through media. Terrorism will only continue to grow over time and it won’t be stopped unless taken severe actions towards it. Brazil ranks 56th in terms of most dangerous countries in the world, Syria coming in number 1. Countries such as Syria and Afghanistan have a terrorism index of 3.5-3.8 while Brazil possesses an index of 2.199 (as of 2017). Brazil is obviously not one of the most dangerous countries in the world but it is still highly vulnerable. Shindo Renmei is the most known terrorist organization in Brazil. There are at least seven terrorist groups located in Brazil which are Al Qaeda, Jihad Media Battalion, Hezbollah, Hamas, Islamic Jihad, Al-Gama’a Al-Islamiyya, and Moroccan Islamic Combatant Group. Terrorism in Brazil is of unknown more than other countries, the terrorism index clearly indicates how rare attacks are in this country. The most recent terrorist ‘attack’ that took place in Brazil was on December 5th, 2017. A Brazilian man stole a fire truck and threatened to blow it up near Congress before getting his tires shot out. Although this wasn’t an actual attack, it still shows that the country is vulnerable. Military organizations exist to be able to fight against terrorism but they won’t be able to suppress any terrorist groups as time progresses. September 11, 2001, is known to be one of the most historic attacks in recent history as it changed the perspective of many nations. It helped strengthen the United States’ military and improve the nation’s security after such horrifying attacks. The United States since then has taken lots of precaution to almost anything they’re involved with. Improving airport security has helped stop terrorists from traveling but with the emergence of cybercrime, terrorists will be able to find a way around the defense in order to reach their task. Terrorism is under the radar as of right now, but that doesn’t mean it is completely again. Terrorists will always find the need to wreak havoc and will always sprout back if a certain plan is not issued to stop them. In recent times, the United Nations was able to establish a counter terrorism plan, and one of its main purposes was to enhance and coherence across the Counter Terrorism Implementation Task Force. The tasks that the UN has created on Counter Terrorism originated in the United States but it can definitely help and protect any other nation such as Brazil. Terrorism is not known in Brazil, unlike other countries such as Afghanistan or Syria where terrorism is very popular within that region. In the past two to three years, Brazil was able to come up with an Anti-terror Legislation that acknowledged the wrongs of terrorist attacks. A good solution to counter terrorism and prevent it from happening would be to draft more resolutions with the UN and get them approved. Securing firearms doesn’t help entirely because terrorists are still able to find their way around and gather weapons. The government needs to develop a better security system. Developing security can be achievable by using cybersecurity to their advantage. In recent times there has been a huge increase in cybersecurity usage. Using internet to our advantage can be extremely beneficial in preventing terrorism.