To case as both cases where related to a



















To conclude Zahid Mubarak
could have been protected by the prison service as they knew that Robert steward
held strong racist views towards other races and ethnicities but due to the
lack of training and the lack of knowledge by the prison officers in Feltham prison
and also the lack of space in prison and having only one bed available which
resulted to Zahid’s Mubarak death this also shows that there was no health and safety
rules as Mubarak shared a cell with a racist individual and though it did not meet
each prisoners needs. For example, when Mubarak asked to be moved to a
different cell as he felt uncomfortable sharing a cell with Robert stewards due
to stewards showing weird behaviour he was not listened to by the prison offers.
Furthermore, looking into the case the cell searches in Feltham
prison had poor check-ups as each of the cell rooms had to be fully and widely
searched every three months. In conclusion Robert steward was not rehabilitated
due to showing psychopathic behaviour and also showing mental health problems
before being imprisoned in Feltham. Overall the prison services should have
been to blame for due to the lack of competence and not following the roles and
responsibilities led to Zahid Mubarak death. Additionally, in the inquiry Mr justice
Keith made 88 recommendations to overcome these situations the inquiry report
found that Robert stewards was therefore dangerous he should have never shared
a cell with anyone let alone another inmate with a different ethnic minority. Overall the case showed that racism was a big issue that needed
to be tackled in the criminal justice system at that time


The Zahid Mubarak case was closely
linked to the Stephan Lawrence case as both cases where related to a racially
motivated attack. This was related to the case as Stephan Lawrence was a black
British teenager who was also murdered by a group of white youths which they
used a knife to stab Stephan which caused him to bleed to death, in relation to
the racist attack which happened in south east London in 1993 both of these cases
show that both attacks where racially motivated attacks and that both where
killed because of their race. Robert stewards who wrote a letter to the killers
of Stephan Lawrence admiring what they have done and expressed his respect for
the killers shows that he holds strong racial views which shows that he was
abusive and had mental health problems. This situation could have been avoided
by the prison service by taking note of what was happening in the prison. From
steward’s past of violence and discrimination with the correct training and legislations
this would not have led to Zahid Mubarak death there’s 9 protected characteristics
which race was one of them. If staff from Feltham prison had full training this
would not happen as they would know what Mr stewards was doing was discrimination
and staff would also know what to do to overcome situations like this. “The
equality act 2010 developed and became law in
2010 , Which protects everyone in the United Kingdom and the public from
harassment, discrimination and also victimisation everyone in Britain is
protected. This is because the Act defends individuals
against discrimination because of the protected characteristics that we have.
Under the Act, there are nine protected characteristics such as Race, Religion or belief,
Sex, Sexual orientation etc…”(, 2017)

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Discrimination is “treating
individuals or an particular group of people differently especially in a worse
way from the way in which you treat other people because of their ethnicity, race
 and also sexuality” (Cambridge
dictionary, 2017)treating a person or particular group of people differently, especially in a worse way from the way in which you treat other people, because of their skin colour, sex, sexuality,treating a person or particular group of people differently, especially in a worse way from the way in which you treat other people, because of their skin colour, sex, sexuality,treating a person or particular group of people differently, especially in a worse way from the way in which you treat other people, because of their skin colour, sex, sexuality,. Anti-discrimination is  “opposed to or intended to prevent
discrimination for example unfair treatment of someone because of their sex,
age , and race” (Cambridge dictionary, 2017)treating a person or particular group of people differently, especially in a worse way from the way in which you treat other people, because of their skin colour, sex, sexuality,treating a person or particular group of people differently, especially in a worse way from the way in which you treat other people, because of their skin colour, sex, sexuality,treating a person or particular group of people differently, especially in a worse way from the way in which you treat other people, because of their skin colour, sex, sexuality,. Topposed to or intended to prevent discrimination (= unfair
treatment of someone because of their sex, race, age,opposed to or intended to prevent discrimination (= unfair
treatment of someone because of their sex, race, age,he Prison Service’s had found that discrimination and racism
at Feltham prison a small number of staff had promoted openly racist behaviour
but not all the racism was open. The inquiry report talked of more understated
methods of discriminating against black and ethnic minority prisoners, which
was a reference to discrimination which only became understood when ethnic
monitoring revealed worrying behaviour and trends from the staff and prisoners,
many of the prisoners at Feltham prison displayed racist attitudes and racist
language was common. “The low number of complaints of racism suggested that
prisoners had little con?dence that complaints would be investigated properly.
The report attributed these shortcomings to a lack of training and management’s
lack of commitment to the promotion of good race relations” (Guardian: Report
of Zahid Mubarak inquiry, 2006) Feltham prison has failed
in many aspects such as lack of training being inadequate
and the lack of management was a serious issue in Feltham prison due to not
having the correct sources and not following the policies and procedures which led
to Feltham prison failing. Not having the correct training in the criminal
justice system can put an individual’s life in danger such as not knowing what
to do when racism occurs.

 There was an occasion were
Zahid requested to move out of his cell whilst sharing a cell with Robert Stewart.
The prison officer to who the request was made by Zahid should have respected
that a sense that Stewart might have been aggressive towards Zahid which may
have been the reason for that request. The failure on the part of that officer
to recognise that possibility shows the unimportance to the safety of prisoners
from ethnic minorities. In that situation, Zahid should have been asked why he
wanted to move, and the request should have been reported to his personal
officers. Zahid Mubarak’s death was
avoidable and was preventable. There were many missed opportunities if actions were
taken by the prison officers Zahid Mubarak could have been saved such as being
placed in a different cell furthermore if the prison was more organized and
well trained they would have known what to do in these types of situations.
Additionally, due to recommendations that were made after his death there were
regulations which have been put in place to improve the system. Furthermore, a
prisoner which holds racist views that are acknowledged by the prison service
and the agencies will not be place in the same prison cell as other offenders.
For example, the same races would be placed in a prison cell together however,
diverse race would not. The inquiry report stated that signs
and clues had been spread around the prison but were constantly missed as
prisons officers either had failed to recognise their importance or did not
take them as seriously enough and did not take notice of them. Even though
evidence for racism, violence recorded concern that steward was a mental health
risk, Stewart was still placed in the same cell as Mubarak. The prison had struggled
with vast numbers of prisoners, staff and pressure from inspectors to expand on
improving their performance

Each agency which was
mentioned above lacked a lot of competence as they failed to access the
information which was provided about Robert Stewart from his previous prison he
stayed at about his racist views and mental health problems. Furthermore, If
the information was taken seriously by Feltham prison and the agencies, Zahid
could have been safeguarded by the jail and the agencies. The Mubarak
Inquiry had  found over 186 faults across
the prison system, and made 88 recommendations which were designed to reduce
the danger of a situation like this ever occurring again. The inquiry report
made 88 recommendations covering risk assessment of mentally ill prisoners,
sharing cells, information-sharing, prison staff having no training, and the
disclosure of psychiatric reports by courts to prisons. Many
examinations have found that night staff in Feltham prison did not always know
who the new arrivals to the prison are as the information about the prisoners
where not read properly in which this led to individuals with different races
clashing due to being put in a cell together. Information sharing despite the evidence that Stewart
had serious personality problems, this information was not appropriately shared
between prisons. “The prison reportedly had almost literally nothing with which to
form an opinion about Stewart as while he had been moved into the prison, it
appeared that Robert steward security files lagged behind him or at the very
least they were not sufficiently distributed among the officers” (,
Security files and also other records of the prisoner’s behaviors where not
correctly given to new locations and were not properly shared as part of a flow
of information. Stewart was never inspected by a doctor at Feltham, so nobody
picked up on his personality disorder. Some of the recommendation outlined in
the Thematic report by HM Inspectorate of Prisons “Each of the security
department should have establish a proper system for vetting security files to safeguard
that they are read by the end of the working day following their arrival, that
any relevant information is relayed in writing to the wings, and that a record
is kept of who examined and vetted, with the date and also the time”. (HM
Inspectorate of prison’s, 2014). Another important recommendation that was made
by the HM Inspectorate of prison’s, “The diversity training which prison
officers receive as part of their training should stress the need for them to
put themselves in the position of black and minority ethnic prisoners and see
things from their point of view. They should be told about the methods and the
techniques they can use to develop skills ” (HM Inspectorate of prison’s, 2014)
“The training which staff receive on P-NOMIS should not merely address how to
log on, enter information and retrieve it. It should reinforce the need for any
information which is to be entered to be accurate, comprehensive and
unambiguous. It should also reinforce the need for all staff to be aware of the
background and offending history of the prisoners in their charge, as well as
their previous behavior in prison. Staff should learn that the system will be
useless if they do not use it properly”. ( (HM Inspectorate of prison’s, 2014)

The agencies of the criminal
justice system is the main major public service in England and Wales. The Criminal Justice System contains a number of agencies
each responsible to a government department. All
three of the criminal justice system such as the law enforcement, courts and
the corrections had
failed to keep the prisoners safe in Feltham prison due to the lack of staff and
also a number of the prison staff had failed to carry out their responsibilities
at Feltham in the time leading up to and after the murder of Zahid Mubarak. The prison
officer (Simon Diaper), who put Robert Stewart into the same cell as Zahid’s
Mubarak without checking his security file, was an unexperienced officer who
had received no training in cell allocation which shows that prison service in Feltham
were unorganized and untrained. The Prison Service role is mainly with dealing with criminals sentenced and
convicted to a safeguarding sentence. Their part within criminal justice can be
questionable, firstly to divest unsafe offenders of their right acting as a warning
to offenders and also to rehabilitate offenders back to society. “The prison service deals entirely with offenders
convicted and sentenced to a protective sentence. In discussion the prison
service role within criminal justice is to simplify a legal decision to deprive
an offender right in order to fulfil the sentence of a court”. (HM prison service, 2017) Role of the prison service is distinctive because it is mainly
directed to controlling and handling the offenders’ behavior throughout their
sentence, Though, it is common to the other agencies within the CJS that it
facilitates crime control and contributes to an offender’s rehabilitation with
in the society. Feltham
prison service was unable to handle efficiently with the numbers of prisoners going
coming every other day. With the staff and inspectors saying feltham was
failing, the jail had no planned way, in which this played an important role in
Stewart being placed with Mubarak as it was the only bed available in Feltham prison.
Robert Stewart attacking Zahid Mubarak with part of a table leg that he had
broken away from the equipment in their shared cell. The fact that this was not
spotted by the prison officers was part of a widespread problem of poor and inadequate
examinations, inspections and management of dangerous inmates.

The criminal
justice system consists of three key main roles which are the law enforcement,
courts which is the attorneys, judges and corrections such as jails, prisons,
probation and parole which work together to deliver criminal justice. “Criminal justice system refers to
the collective institutions through which an accused offender passes until the
accusations have been disposed of or the assessed punishment concluded”. (uslegal,
2017). The courts, the prison service and the probation service all have individual
and characteristic purposes but they all function towards a common overall main
goal. The
main purpose of the CJS is to carry justice for all, by convicting and
punishing individuals who are guilty and helping them to stop offending, while
protecting each innocent individual. The Criminal justice system main responsibility
is to detect crime and bringing it to justice; and also carrying out the orders
of court, such as supervising community and custodial punishment and collecting
fines. The criminal justice system failed to keep Zahid Mubarak safeguarded as
the CJS role is to protects individuals from criminals and also to protect who
would inflict physical harm.

The case of Zahid Mubarak was
brought by the problem of racism in the Prison Service under unprecedented
examination. An community review into the case and culture of racism in
prisons, faults in communication between agencies and lack of services for emotionally
disordered criminals. Looking into the racist murder at Feltham prison of Zahid
Mubarak in March 2000, Zahid Mubarak, who was serving a short sentence, was beaten
to death by his racist cellmate on the morning of his release with whom he had
shared a cell for six weeks. Shortly after Roberts Stewards attack on Zahid,
the police discovered that Robert Stewart who was 19 at the time had strong mental
health problems and racist views. Even though Stewart was never examined by a doctor at Feltham prison in which
nobody therefore picked up on his personality disorder. They learned that he had had a violent
past while previously in custody, and that his mental health had been
questioned. Robert steward had having convictions for violence and mental
health problems, and was known to have expressed racist views but was still put
into a cell with Zahid. Robert stewards jailed for 175 days for sending letters
harassing a lady and for vehicle offences . “Born in 1980,
Robert stewards had a troubled childhood and frequently had problems in school
such as getting into fights and getting excluded. A consultant psychiatrist
said that Mr stewards showed signs of a personality disorder. By the time stewards
arrived at Feltham prison, in west London, Robert Stewart had 18 convictions
for 70 offences”. (, 2006)

Zahid was two days from his release when he was beaten to
death with a table leg by his cellmate Robert Stewart in march 2000. Stewart attacked Zahid Mubarak with part of a table leg
that he had broken away from furniture in their shared cell, when Zahid was
sleeping steward clubbed him more than several times using the leg table. When help
came, Zahid was unconscious. He died from his sever damages and injuries to his head a
week later. He had been in a coma and did not regained consciousness.  The lack of followed policies and procedures
and poor checkups on prisoners and the organization of Feltham staff was part of
a widespread problem after the death of Zahid Mubarak. A
police examination and an investigation by the commission for the Racial equality
followed the murder of Zahid Mubarak. Though, Zahid Mubarak family felt neither
investigation responded to why their son had been placed in prison cell with a racist
and won the community inquiry which followed a four-year battle with the home

Zahid Mubarak, 19-year-old born in 1980 came from a working-class
family. Mubarak committed four offences, two offences for interfering with a vehicle,
and the other two were for going armed for the purposes of robbery. Due to not
attending any appointments which were made for Mubarak to meet the associates
of the community drugs team and other agencies even though the court gave him a
last opportunity to be judged for his suitability for a community sentence. Though
he began to keep some of the appointments made for him, although turning up two
hours late for his appointments, but he missed many other appointments. Zahid was
convicted of the two charges in his absence. He was later to say that he had
gone to court that day, but had only arrived after his case had been dealt
with. Zahid was in prison the following day in joining with two further crimes
which he had committed prior the same day which was an offence of attempted robbery,
and an offence of handling a couple of stolen clothes. He was sent to Feltham
in January 2000. (image., 2018)

This essay will identify the associates of the criminal
justice system. It will be looking at the agencies which make up the criminal
justice system furthermore It will discuss the conditions, procedures and the processes
and the working practice within the criminal justice agencies which was blamed
for their inability to prevent the death of Zahid Mubarak who was sharing a
cell with a racist cellmate (Robert Steward) in which have led to a preventable
death and a let-down in the criminal justice system. Moreover, this assignment
will discuss the concepts of discriminatory and non-discriminatory practice. It
will additionally identify the key arguments and key findings in the concepts
of justice, punishment, deterrence and rehabilitation