This paper examines the contemporary forms of Southern California urbanism as an initial step towards deriving a concept of “postmodern urbanism.” Where Los Angeles is different from the Chicago school models, consists of several fundamental characteristics, including a global-local connection, a ubiquitous social polarization, and a reterritorialization of the urban process in which hinterland organizes the center. Ted Relph (1987) was one of the first geographers to catalogue the built forms that comprise the places of postmodernity as a self-conscious and selective revival of elements of older styles. There are Taxonomy of Southern California Urbanisms explained by different authors different concepts evolved as Edge cities explains location for contemporary edge cities is at the intersection of an urban beltway and a hub and spoke lateral road (Suburbanization), Privatopia explains is a private housing development based in common-interest developments (CIDs) and administered by homeowners’ associations (watch towers) , Cultures of Heteropolis – is a combination of enclaves with high identity, and multi enclaves with mixed identity, and, taken as a whole, it is perhaps the most heterogeneous, City as Theme Park explains as places of simulation without end, characterized by a spatiality plus technological and physical surveillance and control (Suburbanization & Cityscapes) , Fortified City explains The dynamics of fortification involve the omnipresent application of high-tech policing methods to the “high-rent security of gated residential developments” and “panopticon malls.” It extends to “space policing,” including a proposed satellite observation capacity that would create an invisible Haussmannization, Interdictory Space, Globalization explains consideration of the changing nature of industrial production sooner or later must encompass the globalization question (cf. Knox and Taylor 1995), Politics of Nature explains inhabitants have been energetically, ceaselessly, and sometimes carelessly unrolling the carpet of urbanization over the natural landscape for more than a century. This uninhibited occupation has engendered its own range of environmental problems, most notoriously air pollution, but it also brings forth habitat loss and dangerous encounters between humans and other animals.
It suggests a “protopostmodern” urban process, driven by a global restructuring that is permeated and balkanized by a series of interdictory networks, whose populations are socially and culturally heterogeneous, but politically and economically polarized, whose residents are educated and persuaded to the consumption of dreamscapes even as the poorest are consigned to carceral cities, whose built environment, reflective of these processes, consists of edge cities, privatopias, and the like, and whose natural environment, also reflective of these processes, is being erased to the point of un livability while, at the same time, providing a focus for political action.Postmodern UrbanismBefore Postmodern Urbanism, there were some approaches toward the urbanism as Marxism and radical approach to give the situation in the cities; bridge the gap between the people living in the cities. Marx say describe that, there are two classes existed in the cities 1) High class – where there is control of all the factors of production. 2) Low class – where there are working labours.
Due to this rich and poor existence, the high class people control the demands and needs of the low class people. There is lots of conflicts due to anarchy power prevailed in the society which leads to establishment of utopian society, where there will be no state, class, rich and poor differences.According to Dear and Flusty Postmodern urbanism is explained with the several fundamental characteristics, including a global-local connection, a ubiquitous social polarization, and a reterritorialization of the urban process in which hinterland organizes the center. Urban pattern and process tells the assumption that urbanism is made possible by the exercise of instrumental control over both human and nonhuman ecologies as elements of a postmodern Urbanism – Global Latifundia, Holsteinization, Praedatorianism, Flexism, New world bipolar disorder, Cybergeoisie, Protosurps, Memetic contagion, Keno capitalism, Citistats, Commudities, Cyburbia, Citidel, In-beyond, Cyberia, Pollyannarchy, Disinformation superhighway.Same as the Maxism, Dear examines the city is very occupation and utilization of space, as well as the production and distribution of commodities, depends upon an anthropocentric reconfiguration of natural processes and their products. As the scope and scale of, and dependency upon, globally integrated consumption increases, institutional action con-verts complex ecologies into monocultured factors of production by simplifying nature into a global latifundia. Being part of nature, humanity is subjected to analogous dynamics. Holsteinization is the process of monoculturing people as consumers so as to facilitate the harvesting of desires, including the decomposition of communities into isolated family units and individuals in order to supplant social networks of mutual support with consumersheds of dependent customers.
Resistance is discouraged by means of praedatorianism, i.e., the forceful interdiction by a praedatorian guard with varying degrees of legitimacy. The global latifundia, holsteinization, and praedatorianism are, in one form or another, as old as the global political economy, but the over-arching dynamic signaling a break with previous manifestations is flexism, a pattern of econo-cul-tural production and consumption characterized by near-instantaneous delivery and rapid redi-rectability of resource flows. Flexism’s fluidity results from cheaper and faster systems of transportation and telecommunications, globalization of capital markets, and concomitant flex-ibly specialized, just-in-time production processes enabling short product- and production cycles. These result in highly mobile capital and commodity flows, able to outmaneuver geographically fixed labor markets, communities, and bounded nation states.
Globalization and rapidity permit capital to evade long-term commitment to place-based socio-economies, thus enabling a crucial social dynamic of flexism: whereas, under Fordism, exploitation is exercised through the alienation of labor in the place of production (Punjab state in India, Production of Apple IPhone in China although it is developed in California), flexism may require little or no labor at all from a given locale. Simultaneously, local down-waging and capital concentration operate synergistically to supplant locally owned enterprises with national and supranational chains, thereby transferring consumer capital and inventory selection ever farther away from direct local control.From these exchange asymmetries emerges a new world bi-polar disorder. This is a globally bi-furcated social order, many times more complicated than conventional class structures, in which those overseeing the global latifundia enjoy concentrated power. It is classified into two class 1) Cybergeoisie (industrialist controlling factors of production) are providing indispensable, presently unautomatable command and control functions. e.
g., CEOs, subcontract entrepreneurs, and celebrities 2) Protosurps (working labours) are the share-croppers of the global latifundia. They are increasingly marginalized “surplus” labor providing just in time services when called upon by flexist production processes, but otherwise alienated from global systems of production which include temporary or day laborers, fire-at-will service workers, a burgeoning class of intra and international itinerant laborers specializing in pursuing the migrations of fluid investment.
Global latifundia has both Cybergeoisie who extract the factors of production from the Protosurps, these Protosurps can be the local as well as the immigrants from other parts of the areas who will be labours of different class, caste and religion. These immigrants brought their own culture and traditions which might direct or indirectly impose the existing Protosurps.These Protosurps start revolution against the Cybergoisie for their demands, the sociocultural collisions and intermeshings of protosurp affinity groups, generated by flexiest induced immigration and severe social differentiation, serves to produce wild memetic contagion.Eg: In India, Punjab state is rich in production of rice, the cybergoisie of Punjab migrated for development themselves to Canada and London parts of the world giving their land to cultivate to labours (protosurps).
There is lot of immigration from the surrounding states from Bihar, Uttar Pradesh for employment. These immigrants bring their own culture and tradition and influence the existing protosurps which cause memetic contagion. This process by which cultural elements of one individual or group exert cross-over influences upon the culture of another, previously unexposed individual/group.The inevitable tensions between the anarchic diversification born of memetic contagion and the manipulations of the holsteinization process may yet prove to be the central cultural contradiction of flexism. With the flexist imposition of global imperatives on local economies and cultures, the spatial logic of Fordism has given way to a new, more dissonant international geographical order. In the absence of conventional communication and transportation imperatives mandating propinquity, the once standard Chicago School logic has given way to a seemingly haphazard juxtaposition of land uses scattered over the landscape.
The apparently random development and redevelopment of urban land may be regarded as the outcome of exogenous investment processes inherent to flexism, thus creating the landscapes of keno capitalism.This keno capitalism is of varied mono cultures forms the world city integrating as single urban system called “Citystat”.Citistat is both geographically corporeal, in the sense that urban places exist, and yet a geographically ethereal in the sense that communication systems create a virtual space, permitting coordination across physical space. Citistat’s internal periphery and repository of cheap on-call labor lies at the in-beyond, comprised of a shifting matrix of protosurp affinity clusters variously defined interest groups (with differing levels of economic, cultural, and street influence). Political relations in Citistat tend toward poly-anarchy, a politics of grudging tolerance of difference that emerges from interactions and accommodations within the in-beyond and be-tween commodities, and less frequently, between in-beyond and commodity.
It’s more pervasive form is pollyannarchy, an exaggerated, manufactured optimism that promotes a self-congratulatory awareness and respect for difference and the asymmetries of power and disempowering those who would challenge the controlling beneficiaries of the new world bipolar disorder.Wired throughout the body of the Citistats is the disinformation superhighway (or DSH), a mass infotainmercial media owned by roughly two dozen cybergeoisie institutions. The DSH disseminates holsteinizing ideologies and incentives, creates wants and dreams, and inflates the symbolic value of commodities. At the same time, it serves as the highly filtered sensory organ through which commodities and the in-beyond perceive the world outside their unmediated daily experiences.The global migrations of work to the lowest-wage locations of the in-be-yond, and of consumer capital to the citidels, result in power asymmetries that become so pronounced that even the DSH is at times incapable of obscuring them, leaving protosurps increasingly disinclined to adhere to the remnants of a tattered social contract. This instability in turn creates the potential for violence, pitting Citistat and cybergeoisie against the protosurp in-beyond, and leading inevitably to a demand for the suppression of protosurp intractability. The Praetorian Guard thus emerges as the principal remaining vestige of the police powers of the state.
This increasingly privatized public/private partnership of mercenary sentries, police expeditionary forces, and their technological extensions (e.g., video cameras, helicopters, criminological data uplinks, etc.) watches over the commodities and minimizes disruptiveness by acting as a force of occupation within the in-beyond.In My View this theory examines the Chicago school models that concept of the city as an organic accretion around a central, organizing core instead of a postmodern urban process in which the urban periphery organizes the center within the context of a globalizing capitalism. The postmodern urban process remains capitalist, but the nature of that enterprise is changing in very significant ways, especially through eg: the telecommunications revolution, the changing nature of work, and globalization.
Landscapes and peoples are homogenized to facilitate large-scale production and consumption. Highly mobile capital and commodity flows outmaneuver geographically fixed labor markets, communities, and nation-states, and cause a globally bifurcated polarization. The beneficiaries of this system are the cybergoisie, even as the numbers of permanently marginalized protosurps grow. In the new global order, socioeconomic polarization and massive, sudden population migrations spawn cultural hybrids through the process of memetic contagion.
I support “Cities no longer develop as concentrated loci of population and economic activity, but as fragmented parcels within Citistat, the collective world city. Materially, the Citistat consists of commodities (commodified communities) and the in-beyond (the permanently marginalized)”. If the DHS is strong enough to control the people there is no differences create in the Citystat. There is negatives – keno capitalism process is not controlled, the urban growth will in haphazard manner (no proper zoning and planning these uncontrolled growths is a challenging faced in present 21st centuries. References: 1. Michael Dear & Steven Flusty (1998) postmodern urbanism.
Annals of the Association of American Geographers2. Richard Shemur (2006) Chicago and LA: a clash of epistemologies. Urban Geography 29(3. Virtual Tours: Toronto http://www.toronto.
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