This a lot of notice before marketing a show.

This article will focus on and explain the 4 main areas of
the Music Industry which are: live performances, record companies, music
publishing companies and artist management using examples and references.

Live Performance

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Promoting: Artists promoters oversee PR (public
relations) and help to promote and upcoming event/live performance. To have a successful
live performance requires people to turn up and support the act, so that you
can earn money and gain publicity. Dera Shelton, an artist promoter says:
“Promote a show as soon as it is booked”. She also says to “use
the tool of social media effectively to get fans involved and always give a lot
of notice before marketing a show. Artists should send out a press release of
an upcoming show and target the promotion of an upcoming gig to the artists
target demographic”. This shows that social media is very important in the
present day (more than ever) in promoting gigs because it is easier to target a
certain demographic of people and once an event is shared with one person
online, there is a high chance that they will spread the message to their other
friends and their other friends may also share the news etc, thus increasing
the awareness of the gig. The importance of the use of social media to promote
gigs is also stressed by many other industry experts. Jared Kristensen, CEO of Audience
Republic, states that: “every friend group has individuals that are influencers
among their peers. These individuals who have the most influence and make up
approximately 15% of your attendees. By incentivising these influencers to
invite their friends, it’s a much more authentic interaction and you get
significantly better results”.    This
shows how much the message of an upcoming gig will spread if promoted well on
social networking sites.

Nation is the world’s biggest concert promoter. It owns or operates intimate
gig venues, giant rock arenas and music festival sites around the globe,
including the Brixton Academy and Wembley Arena in London.   Artists will often ask companies such as Live
Nation to promote one of their upcoming tours/gigs because of the publicity and
exposure that they offer.

Setting up: setting up a live performance is
tricky and requires people with lots of expertise and experience so that
everything goes smoothly and according to plan. Tom Maunger, a production
director who manages the setup of upcoming live performances says: “every show
starts with the production manager, who then hires his people to help put the
show together”. Setting up a live performance is key to ensuring the gig goes
smoothly with no technical faults and should be done well in advance and not
last minute, so every piece of equipment can be checked to see if it is working

Health & Safety: the health and safety regulations of
an event area extremely important and must be followed to ensure the safety of
the artist and the fans. Stewards will often be hired for big events. The event
safety guide made by the health and safety executive board states, “The event
organiser, whether an individual, collective or local authority, has prime
responsibility for protecting the health, safety and welfare of everyone
working at, or attending, the event. Good planning and management are
fundamental to the success of any music event” 
safety and welfare of fans attending an event is very important because if a
fan gets injured as a result of poor following of the health and safety
regulations act, the event organisers could be sued and this could greatly
impact an artist from both a reputation and a monetary perspective . 

A tour manager (or concert tour manager) is the person who helps to organize
the administration for a schedule of appearances of a musical group (band) or
artist at a sequence of venues (a concert tour). In general, road managers
handle small to medium-sized tours, and tour managers are used on large-scale
tours. Live nation merchandise is a touring company and says “on tour, we
travel every step of the way with our artists and bands, ensuring that
commercial ranges are available across all entertainment venues.  We develop, produce and supply the
merchandise range whilst managing tour budgets, sales projections, tour
logistics and monitoring financial performance” Tour managers will usually oversee the
distribution of tickets both electronically (online, e-tickets etc) and paper
tickets. Some backstage tickets are usually available at a greater price and
they enable fans to meet their favourite artists in person usually before/after
they have performed. Someone who works on the front of house on a tour usually
manages the sound of the performance (microphone and amplifier levels etc).  Front of house staff like Jim Ebdom (who was
on the Maroon 5 tour) control the sound during a live performance. The
different departments of tour/event management must all work together
effectively in order to put on a enjoyable performance for the fans and to
ensure the performance is successful for the artists



Record Companies

record label or record company is a brand or trademark associated with the
marketing of music recordings and music videos. There are two kinds of record
companies: major labels and independent labels.                          Here are some of the
differences between them:

labels are usually owned by a parent company. For example; EMI’s parent company
is the Universal Music Group. This is different from independent companies
(Indie record labels) because they do not usually have a corporate backer. An
example of an independent label would be; PWL. This means that Major companies
are at an advantage financially because they receive funding from parent
companies whereas independent labels are usually started by ‘lone wolves’ with
not much major funding from outside sources.

labels won’t let the artists keep rights or control over their music. Artists
who sign to independent labels can keep rights to their music which can make
independent labels more appealing

major record labels artists earn 10-15% royalty on their music. An independent
label is common to offer the artist 40-75% in royalty. Hence why independent labels
can sometimes be more appealing

Finding and signing artists (A): A (artist & repertoire) is
the part of the record label or music publishing company that scouts for talent
and oversees the artistic development of recording artists and songwriters. It
also acts as a liaison between artists and the record label. This means A
is a key area of a record company so that they can see how their artists are progressing

Acts and
material: A record label usually makes a recording contract with an
artist to market the artist’s recordings in return for royalties on the selling
price of the recordings. Contracts may extend over short or long durations, and
may or may not refer to specific recordings. Established, successful artists
tend to be able to renegotiate their contracts to get terms more favourable to
them, but Prince’s much-publicized 1994–1996 feud with Warner Bros. provides a
strong counter example.

Studios: A major record label will usually own various studios for
artists that are signed to them to work in. However, an independent label will
usually rent out studios for their artists when they need them. This could make
independent labels less appealing to artists because renting is not always
reliable (the nearest studio that the label could rent may be quite far from
where the artist lives, renting time slots are not always convenient for

Retail and
distribution: Traditionally, distribution companies sign deals with
record labels which give them the right to sell that label’s products. The
distributor takes a cut of income from each unit sold and then pays the label
the remaining balance. Most distributors expect record labels to provide them
with finished, ready-to-market products, but sometimes distributors offer
“M” deals. M&D stands for manufacturing and distribution.

With this setup, the distributor pays the manufacturing costs of an album up
front and keeps all the income from album sales until that initial investment
is paid off. ?This means in some cases an M&D deal could be more appealing.

Digital rights: Copyright and digital rights is often a cause of
dispute between an artist and a label as to who owns the rights to the music.

According to the Oxford Dictionary of Law copyright is the exclusive right to
reproduce or authorise others to reproduce artistic, dramatic or literary, or musical works. It also states that
copyright lasts for the authors lifetime plus 70 years after their death. It is
a criminal offence to knowingly make or deal in articles that infringe
copyright. Alex Mann from the Musicians Union says: “Copyright exists
separately in recordings and songs, which means that recording owners (usually
record companies) and publishers can use the rights in different ways. With
songs, the composer of the music and the writer of the lyrics are the first
owners of copyright. Copyright in a recording is different in that the owner of
the recording is the person who arranges for the recording to be made.”  The complexity of copyright shows
how important it is for artists to have a clear establishment with their label
as to who owns the rights to what material.

Some examples
of Major and Independent labels: Independent Labels: 4AD, Matador
Records, XL                                   
Major Labels: Warner, EMI, Sony Music





Music Publishing

In the music
industry, a music publisher (or publishing company) is responsible for ensuring
the songwriters and composers receive payment when their compositions are used

Finding and selecting song writers: Many artists approach music
publishers and music publishers will often watch how an artist who is on their
‘radar’ is developing in their music. Emma Kerr who is the head of promotion at
Boosey says “publishers receive large numbers of approaches from composers. It is,
in fact, rare for a composer to be immediately signed to a publisher following
such a submission: although it can happen, it is more likely that a publisher
will have heard a composer’s music in concerts or on recordings etc, and
followed the career of a composer for a period, a process which eventually
leads to a signing”. This shows how difficult it can be to be noticed by
publishers, to get on their ‘radar’ requires persistence in sending material to
numerous publishers

Promoting material: Music publishers promote new and
upcoming music in a variety of ways such as: Adverts on TV/Cinema, adverts on
YouTube, posters/billboards, through media such as MTV music, Vevo or on social
media. Music publishers may also pitch songs to record companies, film and
television production companies and advertising agencies. They will sometimes
help writers get record deals and funding demos. Promoting new and upcoming
material is key to making an artist’s new release a success

Music sales: Music publishing companies collect
fees and royalties earned from music sales and distribute them to the artists
accordingly. The IFPI Global Music Report 2016 is a useful overview of the
health of the music industry showcasing the main revenue sources for each
stakeholder, here are some of things highlighted in the report: global music
revenues increase 3.2% as digital revenues overtake physical for the first
time, digital sales contribute 45 per cent of industry revenues; overtake
physical’s 39 per cent share, streaming revenues up 45.2 per cent, helping to
drive 3.2 per cent global growth.
This shows that now
more than ever, digital music sales are very important or arguably more
important than physical sales. Music publishing companies are starting to focus
more on digital sales, so they can gain more income.

Copyright Management: copyright management is a very
important area of the industry that both music publishers and record companies
must manage and control. Stopping the streaming/playing of music using illegal
websites/downloads is extremely important for artists to get all the money they
deserve from their work. The illegal streaming/playing of music costs the
industry countless amounts of money per year and the problem only gets worse as
technology such as the internet develops, and more streaming websites are
released. An example of action a record company/publishing company might take
is to request for a YouTube video of their artists music to be taken down if
the publisher of the video has not properly credited the artist.   Jeff Taylor from the BPI says: “200
million pounds is lost in the music industry each year in the UK because of
illegal downloads, the digital economy is important for the UK”. A lot of
places in the UK like restaurants, bars, clubs, studios etc must have a special
licence to play recorded music which they obtain from the PPL. PPL licenses
recorded music played in public and distributes the fees as royalties to its

Some examples of music publishing
companies: Kobalt,







Artist Management

Managers oversee managing all business aspects of the artists
career and articulating the artist throughout their career. This allows the
talent to focus entirely on creating music. Artist managers make sure that
generally the artist is happy and receiving all the income they deserve from
their music.

Small Label:

The role can be varied. A manager responsible for an unsigned
band or musician or signed to a small label (such as 4AD, Matador Records or
XL) often has a promoter, agent, accountant or any other kind of professional
the artist needs to perform and have a viable career.

Major Label:

A manager working for an artist that is signed to a large
label (such as Warner, EMI or Sony) functions in more of a managerial capacity
and supervises the other people employed by the musician(s). These managers
have oversight and ensure that essentials such as advertising and PR campaigns
are running smoothly; that tours are being booked and that artists get paid.

Sponsorship: An artist
manager will work to get an artist sponsored. They will often do this by contacting
sponsors directly. Brand partnerships have been an area of greater investment
for record companies over the last few years. Partnerships can range from
sponsorship deals in which artists endorse products, to arrangements that see
record companies bring to bear the breadth of their developing artist rosters
and create new content. Olivier Robert-Murphy, global head of new business at
Universal Music Group, says: “Brands are experiencing a revolution in how
consumers interact and engage with them. Entertainment in general and music not
only provides access to audiences but also helps brands become culturally
relevant and meaningful across the board. The best marketers today know that
loyalty is in short supply and, so they must deliver experiences and emotions
that tap right into people’s desires and aspirations. Those brands that
successfully create emotional engagement are the ones that succeed in turning
customers into fans.”  Sponsorship is a key source of
income and promotion for an artist and is an important area that artist
managers must help their artists with.

Merchandising: A music
merchandiser may develop and implement marketing plans for the artists they
work with or the products they are promoting. As part of these plans,
merchandisers may schedule promotional events and performances and set up
displays at venues or stores. Merchandise is very important because it
typically contributes to a large amount of an artist’s income because of brand
loyalty and emotional attachment and customers becoming fans.

management: Artist managers often go on tour with their artists and
oversee things such as: generally making sure the artist is happy, making sure
all sales of merchandise outside the venue is legal and making sure they arrive
and leave on time. This is important because artists themselves (especially on
their first tour) are sometimes not familiar with industry etiquette such as
arriving and leaving on time and not trashing the backstage, so they need
someone to keep them in check!

Royalties: Mechanical
royalties are paid to songwriters for the use of musical compositions for use
on CDs, records, and tapes. Payment is based on sales of the CDs, records or
tapes. For instance, when a record label presses a CD of a song, a mechanical
royalty payment is due to the songwriter. Artist
managers make sure their artists receive all their royalties which is important
to keeping an artist happy as they receive a regular and secure income
from royalties.