The destruction of cultural heritageduring war times is not a new phenomenon. It is a crime against the whole of humanityAs there have been many moredestructions of cultural heritage by Islamic State over the last few years. Callfrom the Western world have said that the world should do everything in orderto preserve those sites, as they hold significant positions in the history ofhuman kind.
Besides preserving history, what effect could preventing culturalheritage sites from coming into the hands of Islamic State have in the fightagainst them.After events like …. Culturalheritage could be defined according to UNESCO… Examples of actions are….
This was all to safeguardthe historical value they have. It was another message from Islamic State to the Western world, as theydeliberately destroyed an important symbol of origins of Western civilization. Asit occurs more and more often that cultural heritage sites are destroyed byIslamic State.Besides preserving history, how could preventing cultural heritage sites tocome into the hand of Islamic State help the Global Coalition, consisting of 74members whose mission it is to defeat Islamic State, in countering Islamic State(The Global Coalition, n.d.
). This essay argues that a successful protection ofcultural heritage from destruction by the Islamic State could help in the fightagainst Islamic State. General introduction topic à sign word à problem à thesisThe cultural heritage may be defined as the entirecorpus of material signs – either artistic or symbolic – handed on by the pastto each culture and, therefore, to the whole of humankind. As a constituentpart of the affirmation and enrichment of cultural identities, as a legacybelonging to all humankind, the cultural heritage gives each particular placeits recognizable features and is the storehouse of human experience. http://cif.icomos.org/pdf_docs/Documents%20on%20line/Heritage%20definitions.pdf To start, preventing culturalheritage to come into the hands of Islamic State could cause economic setbacksfor IS.
IS makes profits through several ways, like taxes and fees from thepeople under their regime, natural resources like oil, foreign donations, butalso from selling antiquities they obtained from cultural heritage sites (Heißner etal. 2017, 7). In Turkey alone,which shares a border with IS territory, the authorities caught 6,800 objectsfrom 2011 to 2016 that came fromcultural heritage sites and where being smuggles across the border to be sold (Myersand Kulish, 2016). Estimates show that the profits IS makes from selling lootedantiquities vary millions to hundreds of millions of dollars on a yearly base (Vlasicand Turku 2016, 1177).
Also, in “TheIslamic State’s symbolic war: Da’esh’s socially mediated terrorism as a threatto cultural heritage” Smith et al. state that internal profits, like lootedantiquities, made by IS are essential for the continuation and survival of IS,as they can be used for the costs IS makes (Smith et al. 2016, 179-80). As IS makes profits from sellingantiquities obtained from cultural heritage sites, preventing IS to lay hand onthese cultural heritage sites will thus cause a financial setback for IS,affecting the chances of IS surviving. Furthermore, data found in a collaborativeresearch in 2017 conducted by EY and the International Centre for the Study ofRadicalisation, which is part of King’s College London, shows that although theshare of antiquities is at the bottom of profit shares made by IS, with profitsmade from oil leading the list(Heißner et al. 2017, 8), the financials of IS are already indecline (Heißner et al. 2017, 10), which suggests that any profitmade, even if it is not that much, is very valuable for IS.
It was estimatedthat the overall income of IS decreased by approximately 50 percent in just twoyears from 1.9 billion dollars in 2014 to 870 million dollars in 2016 (Heißner etal. 2017, 10). This was mainly because of loss of in territory which resultedin less natural resources to sell, and fewer people and businesses to receivetaxes from.
Also, some actions taken by the Global Coalition to reduce IslamicState’s financial income have had some influence like actions taken at the borderof IS’s territory to counter smuggling and Operation Tidal Wave II which waslaunched in 2015 which permitted attacking oil transportation lines and cashdepots (Heißner et al. 2017, 12). Furthermore, IS has so far notsucceeded to come up with new sources of funding that would replace the lossesthat have been made lately (Heißner et al. 2017, 5).
The study suggests that if IScontinues down the same path, their ‘”business model”‘ will not last for long (Heißner etal. 2017, 3). à main topicsentence Another argument supporting theclaim that preventing cultural heritage sites to fall into the hands of IS willhelp in the fight against them is that IS will lose a way to express theirpower and ideology on a global scale and recruit new members. Besides the fact that they dothis because The emergence of social media brought a new way ofterrorism into being. In “The IslamicState’s symbolic war: Da’esh’s socially mediated terrorism as a threat tocultural heritage”, this new way of terrorism is described as “sociallymediated terrorism” (Smith et al.
2016, 164). The emergence of social mediaresulted in an opportunity for IS to use the destruction of cultural heritageas a way to ‘manipulate and persuade audiences’ (Smith et al. 2016, 181) andrecruit new members on a global level (Smith et al.
2016, 174). Also, theemergence of social media caused that the ‘destruction of cultural heritageserves the strategic purpose of cloaking the Islamic State with an aura ofinvincibility through highlighting the impotence of its opponents.’ (Smith etal. 2016, 181). Furthermore, Paolo Foradori and Paolo Rosa, Professor andAssociate Professor of Political Science at the University of Trento ((Foradoriand Rosa 2017, 160), state that IS uses the distribution of images of them destructingcultural heritage sites as a new way of portraying their strength and “itsradical, merciless, and unconditional ideology” which will recruit supportersfrom all over the world “by advertising its irresistible power” (Foradori andRosa 2017, 150). So, due to the emergence of social media IS saw a chance to beable to propagate their ideas globally. The destruction of cultural heritageserved to be a good tool for this.
If Islamic State is prevented from access tocultural heritage to damage it, it loses a way to globally express their power andideology and a wayto recruit new members. This, in turn, might affect the powerful image the restof world has of them and an ability to recruit new members, they will thus losean ability to expand. On the otherhand, Foradori and Rosa warn that IS could move on to other activities throughwhich they can show their power on a global scale, shifting from culturaldestruction to human killings. This will be much more undesired than thedestruction of global heritage and will neither shrink the activities of IS. Thehuman attacks might even become crueler than before, as they might go back tohuman killings with even more brutality or they might focus on specific groupslike women and children (Foradori and Rosa 2017, 157). However, the message IS wants to spread with theseshifted violent activities will not be received as globally as the messagesspread from the destruction of cultural heritage. This is in contrast toForadori and Rosa who stated that human killings will reach the same goal asthe destruction of cultural heritage in terms of distributing the IS ideologyon a global scale (Foradori and Rosa 2017, 157). Thisis because in contrast to videos of the destruction of cultural heritages,videos of murders can be very unpleasant to watch for most people and thevideos that are being circulated by IS will only fulfill their goal if they areactually being watched by people around the world (Smith et al.
2016, 176). So, keeping cultural heritageout of the hands of IS might indeed cause IS to lose their powerful face on aglobal level global, and an ability to recruit new members, they will thus losean ability to expand. Finally, as many culturalheritage sites have a good strategic military position, they can very valuable possessionsfor both IS and the Global Coalition fighting IS. The side who possesses thecultural heritage sites will have a military advantage over the other side. Forexample, in Syria and Iraq, there are a lot of cultural heritage sites withlocations that have valuable features like being ‘on high ground, at importantintersections or crossroads, near water’ (Foradori and Rosa 2017, 156).
It isno coincidence that these sites have such a convenient spot. Back in the days,the sites have been built for certain purposes and over time they have not lostthis feature (Foradori and Rosa 2017, 156). Foradori and Rose use 11thcentury castle Crac deChevallier, medieval Aleppo’s Citadel and third century A.
D. Bosra Castle,all Syrian cultural heritage on the UNESCO list as examples, saying that their ‘offensive and defensive values’ in terms of militarydefense features ‘are as pertinent in the current conflicts as they were whenfirst constructed, which is precisely why all the parties have continued tobattle for control over them,'(Forador and Rosa 2017, 156). So, if these sites are in hands of theones fighting IS, IS will have a military disadvantage and it might help theGlobal Coalition fighting Islamic State. To conclude, successful protection of cultural heritagefrom destruction by the Islamic State could help the Global Coalition in thefight against Islamic State.
Firstly, it will affect IS’s money supply,especially as their capital is already in decline. This will limit theirfinancial resources. Secondly, IS will be less able to express its power and ideology and recruitmembers if they are not able to lay their hands on cultural heritage anymore.Through socially mediated terrorism, IS could use images of the destruction ofcultural heritage to spread fear among the world and reach and attract newmembers with their ideology. IS might shift to deeds in which they focus moreon human casualties, but the images of these practices will be less distributedamong the world, as it is too cruel to show in the media, disabling IS tospread their ideology and to expand their territory. Lastly, as many culturalheritage sites have a strategic military position, the side who possesses thesites will have an advantage over the other side.
This meaning that if thecultural heritage sites will not come in possession of IS, the internationalcoalition will have a military advantage over IS. If measures are being taken,this will thus cut financial resources, cut a way to globally express strength,spread ideology and recruit members and take away a military advantage. This essay could be useful for the Global Coalition that wants to counter theactions and the expansion of Islamic State, as it could help the GlobalCoalition to reach their goal. Furthermore, it stresses the importance of organizations like theUNESCO to continue programs trying to safeguard cultural heritage.