THE UTILIZATION OF SOCIAL MEDIA “INSTAGRAM” TO TEACH WRITING
Std. ID Num. 114060007
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION
FACULTY AND EDUCATIONAL OF TEACHING SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF SWADAYA GUNUNG JATI
THE UTILIZATION OF SOCIAL MEDIA “INSTAGRAM” TO TEACH WRITING
A. Background of the study
Writing is one of skills that must be learned, because Writing is one the important skills to learn English. By writing,students can express their ideas to the reader. Its mean that writing can be said as a means of communication betwen writer and reader. Writing is considered as a complex skill because it is skillful activity that involves knowledge, ideas, and critical thinking of students.
Teaching writing is a process where teacher help students to convey information communicativly in writen form. In teaching writing, the teacher should be creative. They should be able to teach different text of writing by using different method and different media. It can help the students to reach the goal in writing.
There are several text that must be learned for students in Indonesia. One of text which should be learned is Report Text. Report text is kind of text which describes the way things are, whith a reference to a range of natural, manmade and social phenomenon in our environment. In the other word, report text is a one of the genre which provides factual information a topic, clarifying and describing a natural and non natural phenomenon.
Proces of learning cannot run succesfuly because there are some problem faced by the students when writing a report text. There are some problem that make students find difficult to write a report text. The first problem is lack of ideas that makes students cannot develop their ideas. Most of students have no idea when they are asked to write, so they do not know what they are going to write.
The second problem is lack of vocabulary. Mastery vocabulary in writing is important to develop the text. It can help students to support their ideas in writing. However, most of students are lack of vocabulary. They are careless to look up the meaning of a word in the dictionary. That is why they just have a little vocabulary that can make difficult to write.
The third problem is grammar. Grammar is an important in writing because to arrange each sentence and develop text to become a good text. However, most of students never concern about grammar when they try to write a text. They usually want instan results like use google translate to try arrange the sentences. Therefore, when they write a text, their writing is fully grammatical mistakes
Media which used by teacher also become a problem for students. Sometimes the teacher use media that make students no interest and bored. In teaching Englih, the teacher should use various media that can make students interest in learning especially in teaching writing. It is expected that they choose a media that suitable use in the classroom.
In this era there are so many technologies as a tools for education that can impove students’ skills especially social media. Social media plays a significant role at both individual and organizational levels in modern society. With the rapid growth of communication technologies (e.g. Internet and Smartphone), it has become a central tool in personal lifestyles and organizational activities (Berstrom & Backman, 2013). Social networking sites, such as Facebook and Twitter, are ubiquitously known, and have been utilized for various purposes. It has been claimed that teenagers as young as twelve have at least one social networking account (Endres, 2013). Given the prevalent use of social networking with no sign of abatement, this subject matter requires continual attention and assessment from research viewpoint.
Instagram was founded in 2010. It is a mobile application for Smartphone which is freely available in the Application Store (App Store) and Google Play (Bergstrom & Backman, 2013). Being mainly a photo-sharing application, Instagram has excelled as an effective communication and marketing tool to display products with visual descriptions. Most poeple using Instagram for sharing photo. But, in this era Instagram not only for sharing photo and video but also for education. Instagram reaches the younger generation, and appeals to diverse societies more prevailingly than other social networking services (Abbott et al., 2013; Salomon, 2013). It has been reported that youngsters today spend more time on Instagram than Facebook (Salomon, 2013). This is likely because young mobile users are extremely driven to take photos or pictures using their mobile phones, and share them with others instantly (Abbott et al., 2013). As such, the sharing of images rather than words alone has made communication with friends and broader groups of users who share similar interests more ideal, convenient and fascinating (Bakhshi et al., 2013).
Related to the explanation above, this study aims to describing the Instagram as media to teach writing. The title of paper is “The Utilization of Social Media “Instagram” to Teach Writing”.
B. Scope and Limitation
As mentioned on the background of the study above, Instagram is one of the alternative solutions that can be used by the teachers in teaching writing in the classroom. In addition, the writer limits the study to know the implimentation of Instagram on students’ writing at the second grade of senior high school.
C. Formulation of the Problem
1. How the implementation of instagram as media in teaching writing?
2. What are students’ perceptions towards Instagram as media in learning writing?
D. Objectives of the research
1. To find out how the implementation of Instagram as media in teaching writing.
2. To find out students’ perception towards Instagram as media in learning writing.
E. Significance of the Research
1. For the writer; the result of the study is expected to give a description about the implementation of Instagram on learning writing.
2. For the English teacher; this research will help the teacher to present the easier teaching aids as well as the interesting way
3. For the students; to make students interest in writing more easily by using Instagram and the students will be more active in learning writing in the classroom.
F. Review of Related Literature
a. Previous Study
The writer takes previous study from Yadegarfar, Hanieh and Simin, Shahla (Vol. 5 Number 2, 49-60 October 2016). This study was an attempt to investigate the effects of Instagram application on learning grammatical accuracy of word classes of Iranian undergraduate TEFL students as well as to find out Iranian undergraduate TEFL students’ perceptions of using Instagram application for learning grammatical accuracy of word classes. In doing so, an Oxford Placement Test was administered among 120 TEFL students, and based on the results, 92 students, studying in Islamic Azad University of Najafabad, Isfahan, Iran, were randomly selected. Then they were divided into two equal experimental and control groups (N=46). Their age ranged between 19 and 26 years old. Gender of participants was not considered as a variable in the study. The experimental group was taught grammatical accuracy of word classes via Instagram application, whereas the control group only followed conventional treatment. Analyzing the data through the independent sample t-test revealed that with the help of Instagram application, the experimental group outperformed the control group in terms of learning grammatical accuracy of word classes. Furthermore, Iranian TEFL undergraduate students had a positive attitude toward utilization of Instagram application.
Then a study was conducted by Geminastiti Sakkir , Qashas Rahman & Kisman Salija (2016) Students’ Perception on Social Media in Writing Class at STKIP Muhammadiyah Rappang, Indonesia. This study examines students’ perceptions of the use of social media in the process of teaching English in STKIP Rappang Muhammadiyah, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. This study was conducted using a mixed method, including quantitative and qualitative data. Data were collected using a questionnaire that collected background information of participants, a four-point Likert scale to gauge the students’ perceived use of social media in class, and open-ended questions to gather more data rich in the beliefs, attitudes, wishes and concerns of students regarding the use of social media in the writing classroom. Findings from this study indicate that the majority of students showed a positive attitude toward and a willingness to use social media in the writing classroom. However, factors such as large classes, lack of training on the use of the Internet, and the lack of facilities could be possible barriers to the use of social media in the classroom.
Another literature related to the use of instagram to teach writing is a study conducted by Handayani, F (2017) in her thesis entitled Students’ Attitudes Toward Using Instagram in Teaching Writing. This study aims to investigate students? attitudes towards the use of Instagram in teaching writing. This study was descriptive research which was carried out at English Department UMMY Solok. The population of the research was first grade students of English Department UMMY Solok who took Writing I subject. The total number of 8 students enrolled at the closed group feature of Instagram, in which only group members can interact each other. To get the data of the research, the researcher used questionnaire and interviewed. The research design included a 5 point Likert-type questionnaire which werestrongly agree (SA), Agree (A), Undecided (U), Disagree (D), and strongly Disagree (SD). It was used to investigate students? attitudes toward the use of Instagram in teaching writing. For the interview, the researcher prepared semi-structured interviews. It was done to five students who had randomly selected. The finding of the research showed that students had a very positive attitude towards the use of Instagram as a teaching writing activity in the classroom.
Instagram is generally known as a novel photo-sharing social networking platform (Chante et al., 2014; Salomon, 2013). Essentially, Instagram is a mobile-based application that enables users to take photos or pictures, apply the different manipulation tools to transform the appearance of images, and share them instantly with friends on different social International Journal of Business and Innovation. Vol. 2, Issue 2, 2015 IRC Publishers 18 networking sites (Hochman & Schwartz, 2012). Although the application was just launched in 2010, it has grown steadily and strongly. In 2013, it was estimated that Instagram had 100 million users, and approximately four billion photos were uploaded and displayed (Abbott et al., 2013). In a more recent estimation, it is reported that around 75 million people are using Instagram on a daily basis, and approximately 16 billion photos are uploaded and shared with other users (Smith, 2014). Instagram reaches the younger generation, and appeals to diverse societies more prevailingly than other social networking services (Abbott et al., 2013; Salomon, 2013). It has been reported that youngsters today spend more time on Instagram than Facebook (Salomon, 2013). This is likely because young mobile users are extremely driven to take photos or pictures using their mobile phones, and share them with others instantly (Abbott et al., 2013). As such, the sharing of images rather than words alone has made communication with friends and broader groups of users who share similar interests more ideal, convenient and fascinating (Bakhshi et al., 2013)
The definitions of writing are variously stated by some experts. According to Rivers (1981: 294), writing is conveying information or expression of original ideas in a consecutive way in the new language. Brown, (2001: 336) also claimed that writing is a thinking process. Furthermore, he states that writing can be planned and given with an unlimited number of revisions before its release. In addition, Elbow (1973) in Brown (2001: 336) also says that writing is a two-step process. The first process is figuring out the meaning and the second process is putting the meaning into language
Another definition of writing skill is also defined by Urquhart and Mclver and also Harmer. Urquhart and Mclver (2005: 5-6) state that writing is a recursive process, which means students revise throughout the process, frequently moving back and forth among the stages. Then, students should learn strategies for invention and discovery, and teachers should help students generate content and discover a purpose. Also, it is stated that readers, purpose, and occasion define all types of writing and effective writing fulfills the writer’s intention and meets the readers’ needs. It means that writing is a complex process and it seems reasonable to expect, then, that the teaching of writing is complex as well. Moreover, Harmer (2004) states that writing encourages students to focus on accurate language use. It is because students consider the language use when the students engage in their writing process. This activity will provoke language development because the students resolve problems what writing puts in students’ minds.
d. Report Text
Definition of Report Text According to Linda, (1995:196) Report is a text which describes the way things are, with reference to a range of natural, man-made, and social phenomenon in our environment. The subjects are about the phenomena of the world whether living things i.e. plants, animals, or non-living things i.e. phones, cars, volcanoes, and oceans. An information report usually contains facts about the subjects, a description and information on its aspects or features like appearance (parts of components), qualities (shape, color, and behavior habits, how to reproduce, what to eat if it is living things). Then, Mark Anderson and Kathy Anderson (1997) defined that information report is a piece of text that tells information about a subject. It is usually containing facts about the subject, a description and information on its parts, behavior and qualities. 24 Mark Anderson and Kathy Anderson (1997) defined the steps of constructing information report the text structure/generic structure of information report and the language feature used in information report is as follow:
1. Generic Structure.
a. General Classification General opening statement that introduce the subject of the report, it can include a short description and definition.
b. Description A series of paragraph to describes the subject. Each new paragraph describes one feature of the subject and begins with a topic sentence, followed by detail sentences.
c. A conclusion that summarizes the information and signals the end of the report (optional/not always). It just to make the text clearly in the end of the text and make the readers comprehend the text tell about. In generally, the generic structure in a report text just explained general classification and description.
2. Language feature
a. Use timeless present tense
b. Use action verbs (climb, eat, erupt) linking verbs (is, has, belongs to)
c. Use language of defining (are called) classifying (belongs to), comparing and contrasting (are similar to, are stronger than, like)
d. Use descriptive language (color, shape, size, function, habit, behavior)
e. Use technical terms
G. Research Methodology
1. Research Method
The writer will use the descriptive qualitative method. The research will try to describe the implementation of social media instagram as media in teaching writing.
2. Research Design
3. Population and Sample
The respondent is the students of second grade at senior high school. In this research, the writer will take the sample in one of class in second grade at senior high school.
4. Research Variables
5. Technique of Data Collection
The writer will teach for two times. After that, the writer give the students assignment about report text. Then, students should post their assignment in instagram with the caption related the topic which their choosen before.
6. Instruments of Data Collection
To collect the data of this research, the writer will give an assignment about report text. The writer asked to the students to write report text in piece of paper first. After that, the students are asked to make a report text and the topic is about phenomena’s nowadays. Then, the students should post their writing in instagram with the picture related the topic. Then, the students’ assignments are collected.
7. Technique of Data Analysis
This study is using qualitative method. The technique for this study that will be applied is focusing description about the utiization of social media instagram to teach writing.
I. Schedule of the Research