The Turkey. The policy, known as the Truman Doctrine,

The Cold War began sometime around 1945, shortly after the end of WWII.

The Cold War was between the United States and the Soviet Union as they fought
for dominating world powers with their polar opposite views on economics and
government. The Cold War is called the cold war simply because of the lack of
use of nuclear weapons between the two countries. The USSR and the United
States were nothing more than mere allies fighting a mutual enemy during WWII
and had always depicted one another as evil. However, with the ever-growing fear
of communism rising and nuclear powers not be shared equality both the USSR and
US shared different beliefs and fought to keep their beliefs upheld.

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            The Cold War is often described as
a war of words and threats between the US and the USSR; mainly being a
political and economic struggle between the two nations that never occurred during
actual warfare. Both countries often fought each other through satellite
countries such as North and South Vietnam, the North being provided with weaponry
and aid from the USSR and the South by the US. By 1947, President Truman
established a policy of providing economic and military aid to countries
threatened by communism—this policy helped Greece and Turkey. The policy, known
as the Truman Doctrine, was a war strategy of containment versus expansion and
can be seen as quite successful given the lack of spreading of communism.

            There are several factors that led
to the creation of the Truman Doctrine. In 1946, four setbacks occurred that
resulted in having no chances of achieving a durable post-war rapprochement
with the USSR. The first setback being the USSR’s failure to withdraw troops
from northern Iran. The USSR wanted access to oil concessions and attempted to
pressure the Iranian Government into granting them access. The USSR also wanted
base and transit rights through Turkish Straits and forced Turkish Governments
into granting them the rights. Apart from wanting unprecedented access and
rights, the USSR rejected the Baruch plan for international control over
nuclear energy and weapons in June of 1946. All of these factors play into the
reasoning behind the creation of the Truman Doctrine. The Marshall Plan also
attempts to deal with the spread of communism by the United States. The
Marshall Plan consisted of billions of dollars in US aid for the countries
still recovering from war following WWII. Marshall Plan was an incentive based
plan to help European countries reject the move towards communism. Both the
Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan was meant to carry out the US’s policy of
preventing the spread of communism and limiting Soviet expansion. Prior to the
Cold War and both the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan, the United States had been
attempting to prevent the further spread of communism in Europe by establishing
policies of economic and military aid for European Nations.

The United States had many allies
during the Cold War and the forming of NATO occurred in 1949 between the US,
Canada, France, Britain, Italy, and the Netherlands. NATO, known as the North
Atlantic Treaty Organization, was formed to stop aggression by the USSR. With
the help of allies, the United States was able to successfully ship supplies by
air to residents of the Western-controlled sections of Berlin between June
1948-May1949. The Berlin airlift was in response to the USSR blockade of land
and sea routes to the cities under Western-control. After the forming of NATO
led to the Warsaw Pact, which was an alliance between the USSR and other
Eastern European nations.

Truman believed in the domino
theory regarding communism and that if one country fell to communism than its
neighboring countries would soon follow and it would eventually reach the
United States so containment had an important role in the cold war. Truman’s foreign
policy directed at blocking the USSR’s influence and stopped the expansion of
communism, created alliances and helped weak countries resist the controlling
hand of communism. The Cold War led to many countries being divided through the
iron curtain. The iron curtain is a phrase used to represented the division
between democratic Western Europe and Communist Eastern Europe. The term iron
curtain was coined by Churchill. The US and democratic Western European
governments feared the USSR would attempt to expand the Iron Curtain of
communism further. The resulting fear, mistrust and confrontation led to the
nearly 50-yearlong Cold War.

The Cold War and its decades long policy
battle led to the Korean, the Vietnam and the Gulf Wars. These wars rose during
the 50-yearlong stretch of the Cold War because of the US and the USSR’s
attempts to win over these countries governments. The United States was
involvement in these wars was because the policy of containment applied in Asia
as well as in Europe. However, with the United States growth in partaking in
war growing, they were still reluctant to commit for extended periods of time,
and this effect was expressed during the Vietnam War. In 1973, the War Powers
Act limited Presidential power to send troops into combat was established
because of the unlimited power granted during the Vietnam war by President
Lyndon Johnson in 1964. From the end of WWII until the end of the Cold War, the
US carried out its foreign policy mainly by taking a variety of actions to prevent
the spread of communism, however the most important aim of their foreign policy
has always been advancement of national self-interest.