The period between the 1300s and 1400s has beentermed as the middle ages, which signified the biggest historical period inItaly as part of the European countries (Burke 2014). It was at this time in history when entireEurope was experiencing economic turmoil and economic unrest and thus arts werenot highly considered. Consequently, towards the end of the 14th century, amovement begun to emerge with a great focus on arts as well as in sciencemostly in Italy, which was later known as the Italian Renaissance (History.com Staff 2010).
As a result,the 1300s and 1400s was the era where the highest profile of Italian historyexisted and thus the topic selected on Renaissance is well suited as itdirectly fits within this period and forms part of the highly cherished Italianhistory that brought about tremendous changes in the cultural context (History.com Staff 2010).Italian Renaissance has been considered to be oneof the major world’s notable outgrowth changes in social status with influencein entire Europe. Basically, Renaissance can be defined as a form of culturalmovement in Italy during the 1400s and lasted for approximately 200 years (Burke2014). It was during theItalian Renaissance when science and art were intractably linked and thusinseparable. Suggestively, the generality of the movement posits and assumesthat this was highly regarded and reflected as the transition period bridgingmedieval; age into early modern Europe.
Analytically, the Italian Renaissancecan be seen to have gone through three distinct eras or period with each eraimpacting on the following period or era (PBS, 2014). Subsequently, eachof the three eras constituted different changed which in summation led to thecontinual rebirth of Europe (Italian Renaissance painting 2016). Categorically, the three periods include theEarly Renaissance era which occurred between the early 1400s to late 1400s,this was followed by High Renaissance that was witnessed between the late 1400sand early 1500s and lastly, there was the Late Renaissance which lasted fromearly 1500s to 1600s (Burke 2014). Each period of the Renaissance was distinguished by a distinct highprofile of innovative artists who were highly creative and intelligent with thezeal to delve into new art (Italian Renaissance painting 2016).
The Early Renaissance was witnessed during the 15th century. This periodwas strongly influenced by Donatello, who was an Italian painter and sculptoras well as Masaccio. Donatello was considered to be the premier innovator inthe 15th century in painting (ItalianRenaissance painting 2016).Donatello’s artistic bravura and works signify the momentous features of EarlyRenaissance era.
For instance, his renowned statue of David has been consideredas the most influential artists of the era (Burke 2014). As a result, the use of heroes to sculpturedifferent forms as well as the youthfulness of the arts marked the popularconcern for the humanist during the early Renaissance. The era wascharacterized by the use of bronze and humanist aspect which can be seenthrough the nudity of the sculptured fashioned during the era (History.com Staff 2010).The next era of the Renaissance that wasinfluenced by early Renaissance and later predisposed a cultural”re-birth” is identified as the High Renaissance. The era lasteduntil late 1520 after being influenced by previous artistic innovators andknowledge (Burke 2014).Evidentially, the era is credit with some of the most influential figures suchas Michelangelo and Raphael (Burke 2014). A considerable shift from the earlyRenaissance which had spurred up the imagery and painting to higher levels, theHigh Renaissance era built on this, however, the contributors such as Da Vinciintroduced the aspect of religion in the art (Burke 2014).
It was during this era thatpainting and other themes were made to reflect religious themes and heavilycapitalized on the region (PBS, 2014). The era was characterized bygreat Christian’s prosecution and thus new rules governing imagery werestipulated which lead to the last supper paintings among much other artworkmade in relation to religion. The artist during the High Renaissance eraborrowed from early Renaissance concept of human aspect to enhance thehumanistic artistic throughout their painting and imagery techniques. Forinstance, Da Vinci borrowed from early Renaissance to combine his sfumatotechnique with chiaroscuro to come up with a puzzling smile for his mostprominent portrait, Mona Lisa (History.comStaff 2010).
Lately, there was the Late Renaissance whichwas ushered and influenced by high Renaissance era. Considerably, this era wascharacterized by reduced innovation and exploits in art owing to the increasedpolitical instability, Martin Luther preaching which questioned the authorityof the church slowed down innovation during high Renaissance era (Burke2014). The era was latertermed as Mannerism denoting the winding down of the innovation and ideas fromHigh Renaissance. During this phase, the artist used different aspects to maketheir work better through painting using different colors, enlarging images aswell as exaggerating their positions (PBS, 2014).Significantly, the Renaissance wascharacterized by a tremendous and monumental change and a shift in cultural aspectssuch as literature, art, social science, politics and even region. Owing to theRenaissance, Italian art witnessed considerable changes in the art whichrevealed a great change compared to the medieval era (Burke 2014).
Subsequently, the ItalianRenaissance was termed and considered to be the most innovative era and thusrevolutionizing the previous medieval era through extensive innovation in areassuch as art, architecture, painting, and sculpture. Artist and architects suchas Raphael and Michelangelo were regarded and seen as being some of the keyfigures who brought about changes through their innovation in style, differentthemes, and different views from the medieval era (Burke 2014). While the cultural changes relating to region,politics, science, and literature were viewed as being significant to theRenaissance era, the greatest innovative and most notable changes were witnessedand made in the Italian art. It was then considered to have taken the back seatin the middle ages or medieval era due to the political unrest that was beingwitnessed in the Europe. Based on the magnitude of the overwhelming changes inthe arts, it is worth noting to that the Italian art had the greatest influencein the Renaissance that eventually resulted in the re-birth of Europe (PBS,2014).
As stated earlier, during the Renaissance, whichwas a transition from middle age era to modern Europe, different aspects of artand science were very closely linked in Italy (Italian Renaissance painting2016). It is during this era that the scientists and the artists strove for themajesty contend in the physical realm, and thus the art of painting waspropelled by two field of study such as anatomy which ensured that there wasprecise representation of human body and secondly through mathematicalperspective which ensured that accurate dimension and measurement wereattainable (PBS, 2014). Perspective in painting was rendered on a twodimensional surface of the illusion containing three dimensions. The previousartist in the medieval ages had found this through empirical means but thediscovery of mathematical methods led to the achievement of three-dimensionalimages was heavily attributed to Brunelleschi in 1420 (Burke 2014). As a result, each method could besystematically studied in pursuit of reality as opposed to previous eras (History.com Staff 2010).Arguably, the Italian Renaissance had asignificant impact on the cultural and transition of the country and entireEurope through the” re-birth” to modern life. Many of the contributorsthroughout the three forms of Renaissance have had tremendous effects on Italyhistory and future (Burke 2014).
For instance, the majority of the changes were witnessed in paintingand art. Before the Renaissance, the majority of the Italian arts was confidedto religious issues and themes. Nevertheless, during the Renaissance differentartists began experimenting by creating non-religious subjects like creatingdifferent portraits for living persons rather than just saints (Burke2014).With time, the artists got used to developingtheir unique individual styles while challenging themselves to be more creativeand innovative by always trying new techniques. Subsequently, painters wereenlightened and challenged, then they begun focusing on the humanistic aspectof life and thus executed different creative ideas and techniques, comprisinghumanism as well as perspective, sfumato, fresco beside foreshortening with theaim of achieving realism objective which became the core aspect of ItalianRenaissance (Burke 2014). Moreover, it was during this time when anatomybecame one of the cardinal interests for Italian artists; a majority of theartists were now interested in depicting human form that represented the reallife. Different artists and painters used different paints, colors, and shade amongother aspects to shadow the human anatomy with the aim of achieving a morerealistic picture to illustrate different emotions or expressions re-birthing apractice which has been borrowed in the present age as well (PBS, 2014).
Italian Renaissance depicted an implausible eraof significant achievements in innovation and creativity among the Italianartists which has a strong influence in present-day life. Some of the talentedartists who were doing exploits in painting and sculpture came up with captivatingideas which depicted the highest level of self-revelation through pictures viatheir great work, not only did it impacted positively to Italians but alsochanged the entire world completely in terms of art. The Renaissance formedpart of the greatest time in history when artists were speedily discoveringindividualism, anatomy, perspective and harmony, which were key to the Italiansco-existence (Burke 2014).Majority of the present arts in Italy wereinitiated during the Renaissance, therefore as a result of having anddeveloping some of the most envied artifacts, paintings and sculptures whichwere extraordinary designed and accomplished. The Italian art has seriousimpacts on the Renaissance era which at the end of it brought about the rebirthof Europe.
Above all, Italian Renaissance has contributed greatly to theItalian culture by helping the present generation to reflect on traditionalinspirations and build their unique culture, which is their core heritage.