The Japanese path to global war was predicted as early as 1909 by none other than the U.S. President, Theodore Roosevelt. This challenges the commonly held belief that Japan entered World War II in a sudden, surprise attack on the United States at Pearl Harbor on December 7th 1941. By the time the Japanese planes were in the air heading to Hawaii, the Japanese had been aggressively expanding throughout East Asia for more than four decades. They had defeated two major world powers in previous wars, they had fought on the same side as Great Britain and the United States in the First World War and they had established a disciplined and By reading Roosevelt we learn several key details about his appraisal of Japan on its road to war: Roosevelt would not have been surprised by Japan’s expansion. Quite the contrary: he was worried about Japan’s direct expansion into South and North America!To Roosevelt, Japan was more of a potential threat to U.
S. interests than was GermanyHe regarded Japan as a formidable, militaristic power whose people He had a clear understanding of the historical precedents (like Japan’s victory in the Russo-Japanese War) that had led Japan to its current statusHe understood that Japan’s growing population needed outlets in terms of space and commercial opportunities He was critical of the tendency of Americans to belittle the Japanese, but not prepare for retaliation for their attitudes Perhaps most telling, Roosevelt even appreciated that the Japanese felt a sense of humiliation and not being treated as equal—nationally or racially—by the major Western Powers, not even those to whom she was alliedFinally, Roosevelt is hopeful that war will not break out between Japan and the United States, but he is aware of the chance, and the need to do everything in his power (to wit: building and maintaining a strong navy) to deter Japan’s potential ambitions eastwardTheory of KnowledgeRoosevelt’s warning both debunks several widely held perspectives on the past and demonstrates the clear importance of being able to contextualize historical documents in order to form coherent assessments of past events that may inform our present. Is this an example of credible foresight that now seems prophetic, or did Roosevelt just get lucky?Could war with Japan have been prevented if Roosevelt’s warnings were taken more seriously? What are your predictions for forty or fifty years in the future? Are there any major powers are slipping toward conflict? What other potential challenges may we gace in the future that observers are predicting today? This section focuses on the causes of Japanese expansion in East Asia. You will find that the Japanese Empire followed a similar long-term path to Global War as all of the major powers, but Italy and Germany in particular. Later in this text you will practice analyzing these similarities as a technique for developing and sustaining a set of memorable key concepts and events that you will be able to recall and integrate effectively as “own knowledge” in your response to Q4 on the Paper 1 exam.
You will also gain a broad understanding of the contextual events leading to Japan’s surge toward regional expansion and global war that will allow you to tackle any set of documents that comes your way. Credit: (Ministry for Culture and Heritage), updated 14-Aug-2014Examiner Tip Before you even start your review of the Move to Global War for IB History Paper 1, make sure you set your mindset properly and you designate goals to match: Unlike the other papers you will write in your IB History course, Paper 1 is less about producing an analytical text from an unseen prompt, and more about responding properly to a prompt contextualized thoroughly through a set of documents based around one of the Case Study sub-topics. Don’t think you need to become a subject expert on the topic: just make sure you are an efficient, critical commentator. ImportantBe sure to always refer back to the sections of the text that outline P1 strategies and terminology like own knowledge. You want to read actively and with purpose—especially in terms of building a lexicon of terms and events that you can deploy as own knowledge when answering Q4 on Paper 1. We will start with an analysis of the major events between 1853 and 1930 that engendered a heightened sense of ultra-nationalism in many Japanese during the time period. Whenever possible, we will also follow an approach that leans on documents and images rather than historical narrative to do the heavy lifting for us.
Learning how Japan moved toward global war in this way provides two advantages: Consistent practice at analyzing documents–the primary challenge of Paper 1Persistent exposure to texts and images that you may actually encounter on the exam. Examiner Tip Useful metaphor: When preparing mentally for Paper 1, don’t imagine that you are preparing to give a speech on the move to global war. Instead, imagine you and your friends all read the same four newspaper articles about a current event and you want to engage intelligently in the debate over it. Nobody needs to tell the story of what happened, you all read the article.
In order to participate productively in the debate, you instead need to be able to: Recognize the subject in terms of its origins, purpose and content. Contextualize the significance of the story in course of greater events and long and short-term causes and consequences. Unpack the shared articles in terms of perspectives of the writers and sources (again—focusing on their OP& C)Identify and analyze potential values and limitations in the articles due to data that they omitted, missed, got wrong or twisted. Develop and maintain a coherent argument based on the articles and the process above.
Put more simply: both chefs and critics are professionals who work in restaurants, but only one has to make the food. Checkpoint for The Big PictureWhen establishing your mindset for preparing for Paper 1, should you be a chef or a food critic? Critic—correct answerChefAccording to the map of the Japanese Empire in 1914, what three major modern East Asian countries had already been absorbed by Japanese expansion? Fill in: North Korea, South Korea, Taiwan (Formosa) Which country did Roosevelt recognize as the greatest growing threat to the United States? GermanyEnglandJapan—correct answerCanada1.1.1 The impact of Japanese nationalism and militarism on foreign policyThe type of nationalism you are probably already familiar with in terms of its relationship to current politics and society is probably different than the particular form that developed in Japan between 1870 and 1930.
Combined with an already existing military tradition, rapid industrialization, the influence of western pseudo-scientific theories like Social Darwinism and a series of rapid victories over powerful opponents and competitors in the East Asia region, many Japanese developed a heightened sense of ultra-nationalism that would help pave the way to Japan’s participation in global war. Local developments, however, provide only part of the story. Especially after First World War, the attitudes and actions of Western Powers like Great Britain, France and the United States must be analyzed closely when identifying the causes for the rise of nationalism and militarism in Japan in the decades leading to World War II. EMBED HEREJohn Green, Samurai, Daimyo, Matthew Perry, and Nationalism: Crash Course World History #34: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nosq94oCl_MImportantAlmost all of the videos embedded in this course either have the option to turn on closed captions (subtitles) or to download the transcript. Whenever you need to, make use of these tools and always go at your own pace while viewing—make sure you take the time you need to understand the content.
The first half of the Crash Course video above highlights the development of nationalism worldwide in the 19th Century before turning to the specific case study of Japan in the wake of Commodore Matthew Perry’s visit in 1853. Be sure to apply Green’s narrative and analysis to both your understanding of the main concepts relevant to the development of nationalism, and your knowledge of the external pressures instigated by Perry. Initial Factors Leading to Japanese Ultra-nationalism DefinitionNationalismspirit or aspirations common to the whole of a nation; devotion and loyalty to one’s own country; patriotism; excessive patriotism; chauvinism.Credit: Dictionary.comDefinitionSocial Darwinisma 19th century theory, inspired by Darwinism, by which the social order is seen as the product of natural selection of those persons best suited to existing living conditions; i.e. the concept of “survival of the fittest” as applied to nations and societies Credit: Dictionary.comThe following timeline provides and overview of some of the major events that were caused by, and contributed to, the development of nationalism and militarism in pre-WWII Japan.
Examiner Tip Key words! Key dates! Key events! Focus on what speaks to you and sticks in your mind. Remember, once you have a general understanding of the scope and sequence of events in the move to global war, you should emphasize isolating key phenomena that are critically related to each of the topics and sub-topics. Isolate the key points relevant to the sub-topic “the impacts of Japanese nationalism and militarism on foreign policy” and be ready to recall them in an intelligent response to 4 documents based on that theme! The Rise of Nationalism and Militarism in JapanThe Trap Historical Precedents Although Japan is famously known for the warrior culture of its samurai and the philosophy of bushido, it was less the samurai spirit that helped give rise to Japanese nationalism and militarism and more the defeat of the Shogunate that led to Japan’s ultra-nationalism. A common, and understandable misunderstanding about the rise of Japanese nationalism argues that the Japanese were infused with the military spirit of the samurai that had existed for thousands of years: that the Japanese are a military people. DefinitionBushidothe code of the samurai, stressing unquestioning loyalty and obedience and valuing honor above life. Credit: Dictionary.comDefinitionThe Shogunate (Japanese: Bakufu)Effective government of Japan in one form or another from 1192 to 1867.
The English loan word shogun stems from one of the titles given to high-ranking warriors (equivalent to a general or higher) in the Japanese feudal system. The shogun was technically subservient to the emperor, but in reality, the emperor was a figurehead who maintained a ceremonial status in Kyoto until the Meiji Restoration and the end of the Tokugawan Shogunate (est.1602) in 1867. It is true that the “samurai spirit” (more accurately identified as code of bushido) was influential in molding the spirit of militarism among Japan’s soldiers and civilians. However, this only took place after the samurai were purged from External PressuresEMBED HEREFeature History – Meiji Restoration: https://www.
youtube.com/watch?v=Y_b58Rpg2YYCredit: MIT Visualizing CulturesPressuresResultsOkuma: from Fifty Years of New Japan, 1907-08By comparing the Japan of fifty years ago with the Japan of today, it will be seen that she has gained considerably in the extent of her territory, as well as in her population, which now numbers nearly fifty million. Her government has become constitutional not only in name, but in fact, and her national education has attained to a high degree of excellence. In commerce and industry, the emblems of peace, she has also made rapid strides, until her import and export trades together amounted in 1907 to the enormous sum of 926,000,000 yen. Her general progress, during the short space of half a century, has been so sudden and swift that it presents a rare spectacle in the history of the world. This leap forward is the result of the stimulus which the country received on coming into contact with the civilization of Europe and America, and may well, in its broad sense, be regarded as a boon conferred by foreign intercourse.
Foreign intercourse it was that animated the national consciousness of our people, who under the feudal system lived localized and disunited, and foreign intercourse it is that has enabled Japan to stand up as a world power. We possess today a powerful army and navy, but it was after Western models that we laid their foundations by establishing a system of conscription in pursuance of the principle “all our sons are soldiers,” by promoting military education, and by encouraging the manufacture of arms and the art of shipbuilding. We have reorganized the systems of central and local administration, and effected reforms in the educational system of the empire. All this is nothing but the result of adopting the superior features of Western institutions. That Japan has been enabled to do so is a boon conferred on her by foreign intercourse, and it may be said that the nation has succeeded in this grand metamorphosis through the promptings and the influence of foreign civilization.For twenty centuries the nation has drunk freely of the civilizations of Korea, China, and India, being always open to the different influences impressed on her in succession. Yet we remain politically unaltered under one Imperial House and sovereign, that has descended in an unbroken line for a length of time absolutely unexampled in the world. We have welcomed Occidental civilization while preserving their old Oriental civilization.
They have attached great importance to Bushido, and at the same time held in the highest respect the spirit of charity and humanity. They have ever made a point of choosing the middle course in everything, and have aimed at being always well-balanced. We are conservative simultaneously with being progressive; we are aristocratic and at the same time democratic; we are individualistic while also being socialistic.
In these respects we may be said to somewhat resemble the Anglo-Saxon race.Credit: The Internet Modern History Sourcebooks; Okuma, Fifty Years of New Japan (Kaikoku Gojunen Shi), 2d Ed., (London: Smith, Elder, 1910), passim.Incentives Kume Kunitake: Records of My Visits to America and Europe, 1871-1873Possibilities for the further development of San Francisco seem limitless. It is a matter of fact that whenever one place flourishes in trade it brings forth prosperity in a corresponding place. London has been prosperous along with Paris, and these two cities have in turn brought forth the prosperity of New York and Philadelphia.
Now geographically the ports that correspond to San Francisco in the East are Yokohama, Shanghai, and Hong Kong…. But while San Francisco on the eastern shores of the Pacific has been thriving, what can we say of the situation at the Japanese and Chinese ports on the western shores? We Japanese must certainly reflect on these matters. San Francisco has taken advantage of its favorable location and safe conditions of the bay. At the same time, it should be noted that its land is vast and its population sparse, with the result that the demand for manpower is enormous, both in industry and agriculture.
The cost of labor is exorbitant. As a result the manufacturing industry in San Francisco has been underdeveloped, and it has been very costly to process timber, wool, leather, gold, and other kinds of metal. Glassware, chinaware, blankets, hats, shoes, silver and copper trinkets, leather instruments, lumber, and even salted fish are so expensive that they have had to be imported from New York, Boston, and Philadelphia. These goods are shipped through the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Isthmus of Panama. It is obviously much more inconvenient to ship goods across such distances than to send them from Japan. Now it happens that Japan as well as other countries of the Orient are endowed with natural resources, where the population is large and labor cheap, in other words a situation the exact opposite of San Francisco.Thus it seems evident that trade between the Orient and San Francisco will serve to lessen prices of commodities in the latter city and bring about prosperity to both. California has large forests, but it imports wooden products from New York.
It has a thriving dairy industry, but it turns to New York for leather goods. It has a long coast line, and yet buys salted fish from Canada. It is famous for mineral resources, and still imports jewels from other States. The situation will remain the same even in the event that California’s population increases to one million; there still will be too much land to be opened up, and the cost of labor will never begin to go down.
Thus trade with the Orient will not be confined to tea, silk, and tobacco. California’s natural resources will be limitless, and manufactured products will continue to be expensive. Are these things not important for future trade? I sincerely hope that the reader will pay attention to them.Credit: The Internet Modern History Sourcebooks;Examiner Tip Most texts for IB history focus almost entirely on the political and ideological developments that take place in Japan between 1868 and 1918.
By remaining aware of the commercial and economic goals of Japanese businesses, such as those described above, you place yourself in a strong position to incorporate own knowledge that is unlikely to be in the documents provided for you in the exam. The Development of Modern Nationalism in JapanThe Impact of Government and ModernizationEducation and Military ServiceConscript army and public education resulted in a new indoctrination to nationalism. DefinitionUltra-nationalismwhen an individual or group’s sense of nationalism takes and extreme, often prejudicial form; when nationalism implies that other nations and cultures are inferior to your ownCredit: Dictionary.
comDefinitionMilitarisma strong military spirit or policy; the principle or policy of maintaining a large military establishment; the tendency to regard military efficiency as the supreme ideal of the state and to subordinate all other interests to those of the military.Credit: Dictionary.comCredit: MIT Visualizing CulturesThe Impact of Japanese Modern Nationalism on Foreign Policy We will now take the developments detailed above and outline their impact on Japan’s foreign policy between 1890 and 1930. Tip: focus on how each event could possibly add to, and justify, the growing sense of nationalism in Japan at the time. The Sino-Japanese War Spheres of Influence in China 55 Days at PekingCredit: MIT Visualizing CulturesThe Anglo-Japanese AllianceThe Russo-Japanese War & Annexation of KoreaEMBED HEREFeature History – Russo-Japanese War: https://www.youtube.
com/watch?v=vS-N_IPCRScLt. Tadayoshi Sakurai: The Attack upon Port Arthur, 1905As soon as we were gathered together the colonel rose and gave us a final word of exhortation, saying: “This battle is our great chance of serving our country. Tonight we must strike at the vitals of Port Arthur.
Our brave assaulting column must be not simply a forlorn-hope, but a “sure-death” detachment. I as your father am more grateful than I can express for your gallant fighting. Do your best, all of you.” Yes, we were all ready for death when leaving Japan. Men going to battle of course cannot expect to come back alive.
But in this particular battle to be ready for death was not enough; what was required of us was a determination not to fail to die. Indeed, we were “sure-death” men, and this new appellation gave us a great stimulus. Also a telegram that had come from the Minister of War in Tokyo, was read by the aide-de-camp, which said, “I pray for your success.” This increased the exaltation of our spirits. Let me now recount the sublimity and horror of this general assault.
I was a mere lieutenant and everything passed through my mind as in a dream, so my story must be something like picking out things from the dark. I can’t give you any systematic account, but must limit myself to fragmentary recollections. If this story sounds like a vainglorious account of my own achievements, it is not because I am conscious of my merit when I have so little to boast of, but because the things concerning me and near me are what I can tell you with authority. If this partial account prove a clue from which the whole story of this terrible assault may be inferred, my work will not have been in vain. The men of the “sure-death” detachment rose to their part.
Fearlessly they stepped forward to the place of death. They went over Panlung-shan and made their way through the piled-up bodies of the dead, groups of five or six soldiers reaching the barricaded slope one after another. I said to the colonel, “Good-bye, then!” With this farewell I started, and my first step was on the head of a corpse.Credit: The Internet Modern History SourcebooksWorld War I and its ImpactsEMBED HEREKhan Academy – Japan in World War I — https://www.khanacademy.
org/humanities/world-history/euro-hist/other-fronts-ww1/v/japan-in-world-war-i What you should knowBy the end of this section, 1.1.1. The impact of Japanese nationalism and militarism on foreign policy, you should be able to Adapt a strategic mindset for preparing for the specific tasks of Paper 1 Identify the major impacts of western influence on the development of Japan in the late 19th to early 20th centuriesIdentify the historical precedents that facilitated Japan’s development of a modern ultra-nationalismIdentify the events that provide major signposts along Japan’s path to expansion and global warAnalyze primary sources in order to contextualize and draw conclusions concerning the causes of Japan’s move to global war Checkpoint for 1.1.1NnnnnnnnnnNnnnnnnnnnNnnnnnnnnnNnnnnnnnnnNnnnnnnnnnAdditional OutlineI. Case study 1: Japanese expansion in East Asia (1931–1941) Causes of expansionThe Big PictureThe impact of Japanese nationalism and militarism on foreign policyJapanese domestic issues: political and economic issues, and their impact on foreign relationsPolitical instability in ChinaEventsThe Big PictureJapanese invasion of Manchuria and northern China (1931)Sino-Japanese War (1937–1941)The Three Power/Tripartite Pact; the outbreak of war; Pearl Harbor (1941)ResponsesThe Big PictureLeague of Nations and the Lytton reportPolitical developments within China—the Second United FrontInternational response, including US initiatives and increasing tensions between the US and JapanII.
Case study 2: German and Italian expansion (1933–1940) Causes of expansionThe Big PictureImpact of fascism and Nazism on the foreign policies of Italy and GermanyImpact of domestic economic issues on the foreign policies of Italy and GermanyChanging diplomatic alignments in Europe; the end of collective security; appeasement ?EventsThe Big PictureGerman challenges to the post-war settlements (1933–1938) ?Italian expansion: Abyssinia (1935–1936); Albania; entry into the Second World War ?German expansion (1938–1939); Pact of Steel, Nazi–Soviet Pact and the outbreak of war ?ResponsesThe Big PictureInternational response to German aggression (1933–1938) ?International response to Italian aggression (1935–1936) ?International response to German and Italian aggression (1940) ?III. Comparing Case Studies: Similarities and Differences on the Road to WarThe Big Picture”Late-Starters”The Impact of World War I IdeologyRationale for ExpansionList of SourcesAll definitions sourced from http://www.dictionary.com with modifications from the authorTimeline text sourced from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-pacific-15219730 with modifications from the authorDocuments sourced from The Internet History Sourcebooks Project: https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/Halsall/index.asp Original images sourced from MIT Visualizing Cultures: https://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.027/home/index.html Treaty of Portsmouth image sourced from: Britannica.com https://www.britannica.com/event/Treaty-of-PortsmouthJohn Green, Samurai, Daimyo, Matthew Perry, and Nationalism: Crash Course World History #34: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nosq94oCl_M Feature History – Meiji Restoration: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y_b58Rpg2YYFeature History – Russo-Japanese War: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vS-N_IPCRSc Khan Academy – Japan in World War I — https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/world-history/euro-hist/other-fronts-ww1/v/japan-in-world-war-i Japanese Empire Map sourced from: ‘Map of the Empire of Japan in 1914’, URL: https://nzhistory.govt.nz/media/photo/map-empire-japan-1914 (Ministry for Culture and Heritage), updated 14-Aug-2014