The stores and recreational areas, creates a space not

The spatial configuration of Ankamall Shopping Mall is based on an atrium scheme. The shops are organized side by side, around the atrium void, while on the whole, the building displays the features of compositional form. Pierre Von Meiss states that: The sense of continuity of place is necessary to people’s sense of reality. In fact, there exists a full range of possible awareness, from simple recognition for orientation, through the capacity to respond empathetically to the identities of different places, to a profound association with places as cornerstones spaces with different functions such as shops, cafes, restaurants, playgrounds, cinemas, theater halls. The shopping mall attempts to attract people with its miscellaneous functions for various groups of people, modern facilities, by submitting new marketing systems.  There is a mixed use functional organization in Ankamall Shopping Mall. The public spaces do not provide landmarks whilst users move around. The locations of gathering spaces on upper floors are determined according to the design standards of modern shopping malls. The users of these public spaces are forced to spend their time window shopping in the course of ascending to these spaces. The overloaded shops have a ubiquitous functional configuration. Lack of a unique sense of place and functional organization in design of the shopping mall is the main reason for creation of a non-place.

Despite the location of the shopping mall among other blocks, there is no integration between blocks and city structure.  

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The Piazza surrounded by the retail units creates an alternative public space. The activity stairs direct the public down to the interior mall that also has another direct entrance on the south. The retail level below has a subway connection and includes the cinemas, a gourmet market, and leisure platforms. The project deals with contradictions: grandeur and modesty, public and private, institutional and domestic. The project creates a public space in the middle of private offices, and domestic structures.


The space in the middle of this structure, combined with stores and recreational areas, creates a space not unlike the town centers where commercial activities took place in times before conventional shopping malls. By resembling the shopping mall to the town center, people are invited to the mall not only to shop but also to socialize and entertain themselves.

does not only fully-integrate physically with city; the integration is also social, economical, and environmental. The sustainability of Kapal?c?ars??, as it has been functioning for centuries, depends on many different issues; but most importantly for us depends on its urban public space quality. Kapal?c?ars?? has a great pedestrian accessibility; it has diversity and variety of shops and public spaces. It sustained its vitality for centuries and has been an urban regenerator economically.

The overall scheme is found very dynamic where the skin is transformed into an artificial hill. The effort to create such a topography and using it as an open public area, and maximum use of Bosporus views from this open space is also appreciated. However, there are some questions that pertain to the slope of this topography where it may discourage people who would like to climb. Also, privacy issue of the blocks is another point that should be considered where the blocks meet this artificial topography. The slits on the skin and on some parts of the surface should also be considered once again, since they might not be wide enough to let enough daylight below. The tension between an organic artificial topography and the solid archetypal blocks is also appreciated. The transition of the natural stone skin with its strong facets into a softer green natural surface is remarkable. This transition and tension is also reflected in the atmosphere inside the retail area, with its almost science-fiction inclination whereas the upper level is considered as an undomesticated nature. However, the atmosphere created inside the entrance area has to be studied again since it might be uninviting as it is intended for such a public space. The “Miesian” qualities of the high rise blocks are appreciated. However, it is advised to reduce the width of the blocks in order to have more natural light near to the cores. The cloning of the blocks is also another aspect that should be considered where each of them is still housing different functions. The use of double skin on the resident blocks should also be considered, where direct Bosporus view from inside the flats is required. Also, it is criticized that the overall project is based too much on pedestrian usage and pedestrian access where as it is expected that the people using this complex will use their own cars or taxis heavily (Ozkan, 2013). The pedestrian approaches are not developed so well. It is also possible that the main entrance corner with its wide-open ground area might be very empty if this corner is not supported by public transportation and pedestrian access.

The covered bazaars in the Middle Eastern cities were places in which the citizens gathered. They are interwoven into the urban fabric. There is a continuity between bazaar?s structure and city structure. They were located in the cities? center and in short distance to other establishments. According to Ashraf, “the covered bazaars of Islamic countries have long history and they were the main elements in forming Middle Eastern cities. The structure, location, and shape of the bazaars had imperative character in expansion of the cities.”

Hence, they were backbones of the cities and indicated the routes which joined various parts to each other and centralized them to the core of the cities.  The 19th-century shopping galleries are pedestrian walkways, have glass vaults and domes. The shopping galleries were expanded with the emergence of modernity and new life style in European cities. Like the covered bazaars they are interwoven into urban fabric and connected several busy streets and monumental buildings to each other. Their architecture features are precursors of modern shopping malls. With the expansion of modern life style in societies, the positions of the shopping spaces were changed. The city centers were reshaped by streets which had vehicular congestions and multi-story buildings. Within this process, the suburbs of the cities became the main places of construction of shopping malls.