The ancientEgyptians and Mesopotamians have many common traits, but also differ, despite emerging in the same years. TheEgyptians, a people religiously optimistic, put in place a bureaucraticgovernment which ultimately reflects their social system. In Mesopotamia, wherelife was not considered as optimistic, the more diversified system social ledto a political system decentralized.
Experience shows, however, that the twocompanies of confidence in the beyond, has established a unique structure inwriting and has excelled in the arts in a significant manner and the sciences. Mesopotamia,unfortunately, has not had a seasonal flooding of the Tigris and EuphratesRivers, which would oblige them to create an organized system agricultural.This could explain their negative vision of the beyond and the general ambiance of the gods. Egypt, however, stoodalong the fertile soils of the Nile valley, which has provided a floodfamiliar. This has allowed the Egyptians to see the universe as orderly andbeneficial. Therefore, this sacred life after death that they have believed inthe preservation of the body to the death for the journey to the afterworld bythe process of mummification. The Mesopotamians, fearing to disappoint thegods, believed that their purpose was to serve the gods, and thus the religionhas played a more important role within the government.
The priests, forexample, were much more important than in Egypt. Regardless of the situation,the two civilizations have prospered in agriculture. Thetwo communities had a social system broken down into three groups. The act of the KingHammurabi said these three groups: landowners free, containing the kingship,priests and officials, farmers dependent and artisans, and the class of the slaves,who were generally of prisoners of war.
The heads of the Temple were consideredas royalties and controlled major areas with the Lugal. While the maledomination exists, women have rights has in Mesopotamia. They could own landand businesses and could trade, but the education of children has beenpreferred. Women has finished by losingthe social status of the spread of agriculture and the rise of the middleclass.
The social class in Egypt has been less pronounced: composed of the kingand his officials, the officials of the lower level, the priests, the farmersand the professionals, and peasants to the base. The peasant class executed alarge part of the agricultural labor force,since slavery has been limited. Obesity, as in many ancient civilizations, wasa sign of wealth and status. Subordination of the woman to the man appears inEgypt as well. Women still had the rights a little more. This included to possess property, inheritance and theability of property to anyone. Aking of any kind has finally ruled that Egypt and Mesopotamia.
Egyptians weregoverned by a bureaucracy, where the pharaoh was the supreme head, follow-up toits designated agents. The officials have been chosen by the merit, rather thanby the heritage as in Mesopotamia. The pharaoh was considered as God on earth,granted with the responsibility to ensurethe well-being and prosperity.
The palace has been in the control oflong-distance trade as well as the collection of taxs to put in the construction and the army. Priests, on the otherhand, have not played a large role in policy as in Mesopotamia. The two centersof power in Mesopotamia were the temple and the Palace of the king. The Templeand the Palace were generally in the center and surrounded by agriculturalland, known as a state of city. Thesecities-developed states independently and exchanged between them. Thetheocratic King has been called the Lugal and has been responsible for propertyrights, the defense, and the Act. Slightly different from Egypt, the Lugal wasthat the representative or a mediator of the gods.