The scientificliterature is the effort in printed/published or non-printed /non-published form that follows methodological and systematic procedures andprocesses applied on a subject matter that reports the original experientialand experimental work of a researcher in a field. These fields of the researchcan be of two types, social sciences and natural sciences, whereas, thescientific literature can be classified into two main types, primary scientificliterature and secondary scientific literature. The scientific literature isthe technique used by scientist and researchers to talk about and to record theoutcomes and findings of their exploration.
The primaryscientific literature is the original document that is created in theprogression of research and is the result of execution of the scientificmethodology on a subject in consideration. This is the ceremonial result inprinted / non-printed form, which provides the scientific thought, aninnovation or discovery or a new piece of information. These are the materialson which secondary research is carried out. Primary sources are the first to bepublished and secondary sources come second. The primary scientific literaturecan be classified into the following; articles/researchpapers, reports, conference proceedings, extended abstracts,dissertation/thesis, manuscript, patents, audio &video interviews byexperts, dairy etc. Articles/researchpapers are generally the sources that report the scientific methods andoutcomes of a research conducted on a subject. These can be further dividedinto journal paper, short communication and rapid communication. Journal papers are published from timeto time and are intended to advance the improvement and development of scienceby reporting new studies and explorations.
The authors of these research papersare usually active researchers or students. These journal papers are of twotypes: peer review, in this type of journal paper, the written document is sentto the experts of the similar field of research to scrutinize the quality ofresearch and its scientific authenticity, these experts then give a prudentunbiased review. Non-peer review, in this type of journal paper the researchdocument is not reviewed by the experts of the field or even not reviewed atall. Short Communication usuallyreports new concepts, ideas and recent discoveries which are not uncoveredbefore. It does not cover comprehensive contextual information about the issuerather they provide key-pointers to the people, the aim of the author is toreport the discovery as quickly as possible to become the first scientist onreporting the feature.
RapidCommunication is focused on swift and prompt propagation of the significantand noteworthy research which is interesting and as well as exciting to aparticular subject. Report is a piece of writing in which a researcher gives awritten explanation of what they have observed or investigated. It is a veryspecific form of writing succinctly pinpointing the finding and examining theevents that had occurred. Reports usually have specific audience and providefocused and salient contents with the intention to provide the information inpresentable form. Conference proceeding is the collection of researches thatare being presented in the conference or a workshop. The researches are fromseparate individuals or separate fields therefore, they are isolated from eachother and do not interlink. Conferenceproceedings are also peer reviewed and the quality of the publicationcan’t be given a high status as compared with the international scientificjournal. Extended abstract contains references to the sources,comparisons to the relevant work, proofs and other details expected in aresearch.
The knowledge and importance of the research through extendedabstract could easily be understood within an hour. Dissertation/Thesis isusually a paper submitted by the researcher for the award of the doctoraldegree and contains the author’s research and finding on a particular andmostly narrow topic. They normally report a stretched exploration of the topic,it explains the purpose, the previous researches and their relevance to thesubject and report the findings of the research. Manuscript is a handwritten document as opposed to a printed document. Before printing machines,all the documents were hand written in the form of book form, scrolls or incodex format. Manuscripts are not content specific, they can combine mathematicalcalculations, maps or illustrations to propagate the information. Patentis an exclusive right approved by the government to an inventor for a specificinvention, it is considered as an intellectual property of the inventor.
Invention is a solution to problem in a specific technological area. Patentexcludes others from copying, making and selling or use of the invention for aperiod of time. Audio & Video interviews by experts is a discussion or adialogue process in which information is exchanged. Interviewer couldthemselves be a researcher in the similar field but the interviewee must be anexpert and actually have gone through the research process themselves. It isessential for them to have firsthand knowledge of the methods, procedures andoutcomes of the research.
Diary is a record keeping tool inwhich events and entries of record are stored by date of the happening of theevents. A personal dairy could include individual experiences and thoughts ofthe person and are the direct source of knowledge about the person’s life afterpublication. The secondary scientific literature isthe source of literature that peruse, re-write and elucidate the primaryscientific literature. It is not necessary that the author has worked on theprimary literature himself rather the reason of the secondary literature is torecap and articulate the knowledge of a particular subject for the otherresearchers and scientists who already have the understanding of the topic. Thesecondary scientific literature is always referenced to the primary literature.
The following are some examples; books / textbooks, websites, commentaries& criticism, histories, biographical works, etc. The secondary scientificliterature can be divided into the following; book/textbook, website / blog, encyclopedia, newsletter, review article,monograph, magazine, autobiography etc. Book/textbook is the book used as atypical work for the study of a specific subject. The goal of a textbook is tocreate a comprehensive, up-to-date and engaging material as possible. Appropriatenew material is added, old material is updated to the requirement andirrelevant material is deleted, nowadays many textbooks use case studies ofimportant companies and organizations to create an experience that even thefirst time reader can understand the breadth, depth and relevance of thesubject matter. Website/blog is a dialogue or conversational website whereexchange of views takes place in order to reach a decision about a particularsubject published on World Wide Web. It often has informal diary style writingwhich is called a post. Blogs provide a commentary on certain topic stretchingfrom politics to technology.
Encyclopedia is a book revealinginformation or summary on many topics or subjects or many phases or situationsof a single subject. An encyclopedia is, theoretically, not written in order toconvince, although one of its objectives is to satisfy its readers of its ownreliability. Newsletter is a printed report encompassing news of the eventsor actions of a business or an organization that is sent regularly to all themembers (customers, stakeholders, employees etc.
) who have their concern withthe organization. They usually have one main topic of consideration. Reviewarticle is a writing that condenses the existing understanding of atopic. It studies and synopses previously printed researches rather thanreporting new findings. An expert’s judgment on the research is valuable and ithelps general readers to benefit from the experts reasoning, therefore authenticatingthe research. Monograph is intellectual piece of work targeted towards aparticular subject or an aspect of a subject, usually written by a singlewriter.
The determination of the monograph is to present primary explorationand original erudition. Magazine is a publication commonlypublished periodically and contains a variety of contents. Magazine hasarticles based on religion, science, technology and even personalities, thearticles are usually considered secondary sources. There is no limit to whatmagazine can publish, there is a load of advertisement which supports themagazine publication as well as their trades. Autobiography is helpfulin acquiring knowledge regarding history or humanities. It is a secondarysource when authored by a person who isn’t involved in the first hand events.