The or discovery or a new piece of information.

The scientific
literature is the effort in printed/published or non-printed /
non-published form that follows methodological and systematic procedures and
processes applied on a subject matter that reports the original experiential
and experimental work of a researcher in a field. These fields of the research
can be of two types, social sciences and natural sciences, whereas, the
scientific literature can be classified into two main types, primary scientific
literature and secondary scientific literature. The scientific literature is
the technique used by scientist and researchers to talk about and to record the
outcomes and findings of their exploration.


The primary
scientific literature is the original document that is created in the
progression of research and is the result of execution of the scientific
methodology on a subject in consideration. This is the ceremonial result in
printed / non-printed form, which provides the scientific thought, an
innovation or discovery or a new piece of information. These are the materials
on which secondary research is carried out. Primary sources are the first to be
published and secondary sources come second. The primary scientific literature
can be classified into the following; articles/research
papers, reports, conference proceedings, extended abstracts,
dissertation/thesis, manuscript, patents, audio &video interviews by
experts, dairy etc.

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papers are generally the sources that report the scientific methods and
outcomes of a research conducted on a subject. These can be further divided
into journal paper, short communication and rapid communication. Journal papers are published from time
to time and are intended to advance the improvement and development of science
by reporting new studies and explorations. The authors of these research papers
are usually active researchers or students. These journal papers are of two
types: peer review, in this type of journal paper, the written document is sent
to the experts of the similar field of research to scrutinize the quality of
research and its scientific authenticity, these experts then give a prudent
unbiased review. Non-peer review, in this type of journal paper the research
document is not reviewed by the experts of the field or even not reviewed at
all. Short Communication usually
reports new concepts, ideas and recent discoveries which are not uncovered
before. It does not cover comprehensive contextual information about the issue
rather they provide key-pointers to the people, the aim of the author is to
report the discovery as quickly as possible to become the first scientist on
reporting the feature. Rapid
Communication is focused on swift and prompt propagation of the significant
and noteworthy research which is interesting and as well as exciting to a
particular subject. Report is a piece of writing in which a researcher gives a
written explanation of what they have observed or investigated. It is a very
specific form of writing succinctly pinpointing the finding and examining the
events that had occurred. Reports usually have specific audience and provide
focused and salient contents with the intention to provide the information in
presentable form. Conference proceeding is the collection of researches that
are being presented in the conference or a workshop. The researches are from
separate individuals or separate fields therefore, they are isolated from each
other and do not interlink.  Conference
proceedings are also peer reviewed and the quality of the publication
can’t be given a high status as compared with the international scientific
journal. Extended abstract contains references to the sources,
comparisons to the relevant work, proofs and other details expected in a
research. The knowledge and importance of the research through extended
abstract could easily be understood within an hour. Dissertation/Thesis is
usually a paper submitted by the researcher for the award of the doctoral
degree and contains the author’s research and finding on a particular and
mostly narrow topic. They normally report a stretched exploration of the topic,
it explains the purpose, the previous researches and their relevance to the
subject and report the findings of the research. Manuscript is a hand
written document as opposed to a printed document. Before printing machines,
all the documents were hand written in the form of book form, scrolls or in
codex format. Manuscripts are not content specific, they can combine mathematical
calculations, maps or illustrations to propagate the information. Patent
is an exclusive right approved by the government to an inventor for a specific
invention, it is considered as an intellectual property of the inventor.
Invention is a solution to problem in a specific technological area. Patent
excludes others from copying, making and selling or use of the invention for a
period of time. Audio & Video interviews by experts is a discussion or a
dialogue process in which information is exchanged. Interviewer could
themselves be a researcher in the similar field but the interviewee must be an
expert and actually have gone through the research process themselves. It is
essential for them to have firsthand knowledge of the methods, procedures and
outcomes of the research. Diary is a record keeping tool in
which events and entries of record are stored by date of the happening of the
events. A personal dairy could include individual experiences and thoughts of
the person and are the direct source of knowledge about the person’s life after


The secondary scientific literature is
the source of literature that peruse, re-write and elucidate the primary
scientific literature. It is not necessary that the author has worked on the
primary literature himself rather the reason of the secondary literature is to
recap and articulate the knowledge of a particular subject for the other
researchers and scientists who already have the understanding of the topic. The
secondary scientific literature is always referenced to the primary literature.
The following are some examples; books / textbooks, websites, commentaries
& criticism, histories, biographical works, etc. The secondary scientific
literature can be divided into the following; book/textbook, website / blog, encyclopedia, newsletter, review article,
monograph, magazine, autobiography etc.


Book/textbook is the book used as a
typical work for the study of a specific subject. The goal of a textbook is to
create a comprehensive, up-to-date and engaging material as possible. Appropriate
new material is added, old material is updated to the requirement and
irrelevant material is deleted, nowadays many textbooks use case studies of
important companies and organizations to create an experience that even the
first time reader can understand the breadth, depth and relevance of the
subject matter. Website/blog is a dialogue or conversational website where
exchange of views takes place in order to reach a decision about a particular
subject published on World Wide Web. It often has informal diary style writing
which is called a post. Blogs provide a commentary on certain topic stretching
from politics to technology. Encyclopedia is a book revealing
information or summary on many topics or subjects or many phases or situations
of a single subject. An encyclopedia is, theoretically, not written in order to
convince, although one of its objectives is to satisfy its readers of its own
reliability. Newsletter is a printed report encompassing news of the events
or actions of a business or an organization that is sent regularly to all the
members (customers, stakeholders, employees etc.) who have their concern with
the organization. They usually have one main topic of consideration. Review
article is a writing that condenses the existing understanding of a
topic. It studies and synopses previously printed researches rather than
reporting new findings. An expert’s judgment on the research is valuable and it
helps general readers to benefit from the experts reasoning, therefore authenticating
the research. Monograph is intellectual piece of work targeted towards a
particular subject or an aspect of a subject, usually written by a single
writer. The determination of the monograph is to present primary exploration
and original erudition. Magazine is a publication commonly
published periodically and contains a variety of contents. Magazine has
articles based on religion, science, technology and even personalities, the
articles are usually considered secondary sources. There is no limit to what
magazine can publish, there is a load of advertisement which supports the
magazine publication as well as their trades. Autobiography is helpful
in acquiring knowledge regarding history or humanities. It is a secondary
source when authored by a person who isn’t involved in the first hand events.