The mostly residual. Those that believe only in cement

The purpose of stabilizing -a soil is to alter its physical properties,
increase its strength and increase its durability in order to provide a satisfactory
foundation material. The admixtures most commonly used today in road
construction throughout the world are cement, lime, asphalt and sand. Cement
appears to be most common additive used to date in Africa and South America
Lime has been used as well, but not as commonly as cement. The use of asphalt
has been limited to lateritic soils of a sandy nature. Stabilization by
admixture of sand has been investigated

There has been a certain amount of
controversy between those advocating stabilization with cement and those
advocating stabilization with lime. This is true in temperate climates involving
both residual and transported soils. It is also true in tropical climates where
the soils are mostly residual. Those that believe only in cement stabilization state
that there is little in tropical residual soils with which the lime can react,
and unless there are clay-lime reactions, there is no benefit in adding lime.
Those who believe in lime stabilization state that most clayey materials are
more effectively stabilized with lime than cement. There are also those who believe
in a combination of both lime and cement for tropical red soils. Studies have
found many highly plastic soils which do not increase in strength upon the
addition of lime but which always show a reduction in plasticity. The soils
become more friable and easier to mix creating ideal soils for cement

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Kreijger stated that we are the one who will
be responsible when making choices of the materials to be used in the project
and the one to take the ecological and social consequences of our decision. In
other words, when choosing a materials for construction we must also consider
on its effect  environmentally
,technically and economically.   

Ilorii and  Udo (2015) The geotechnical
properties of an A-7-6(8) soil that exert great influence on the behavior of a
highway pavement  when the soil is used as subgrade, subbase and
base were investigated when mixed with various percentages of saw dust ash. The
mixture improves the properties of the virgin soil at optimum percentage of 12.
At this level of mixture, an increase in strength of the soil up to four times
that of the native soil as indicated by Unconfined compression test, a less
expansive soil as indicated by plasticity index of the resulting mixture, and
lower values of plastic limit which signifies stale soil. SDA can be used to
reduce the Plasticity Index values of expansive soil, which are often a problem
in road and building engineering construction