The Effect of Music on Heart Rate (Lab Report)Background Information: The heart is a vital organ made of cardiac muscle that pumps blood throughout the body. Heart rate is associated with the contraction of the different chambers of the heart, and is considered myogenic. As a result, the heartbeat is controlled independently of the central nervous system and is instead controlled by the pacemaker, also known as the Sinoatrial node. External stimuli or external factors also result in alterations of the heart rate. These include physical and emotional factors. One type of external stimuli that is shown to have effects on the heart rate is sound, specifically music. Music is currently being considered to be used as therapy for coronary conditions as well as on anxiety. Introduction: The purpose of this experiment is to see to what extent are we affected by music on a physical level. The reasoning behind researching music’s physical effect is because of how it is mostly known to have a more mental and emotional effect on our mood. Through this investigation we can gain a comprehensive understanding of the effects on the human heart, and how an everyday pleasure like music can cause physical change in our bodies by the different types of genres that come with it. Ultimately, investigating and understanding the physical effects of music on the adolescent’s heart, will enable new remedies and music therapies to be created for those with heart conditions. Question: What is the effect of different genres of music, on the heart rate of an adolescent?Hypothesis: If the genre of music being listened to is loud and has a fast tempo, I predict that the heart rate will increase because faster tempos cause accelerated breathing. Pop or techno songs are great examples of this. Likewise softer and and more quiet music will cause the opposite reaction and result in a decreased or minimally increased heart rate. Classical and jazz music are genres that can calm or create mild excitement. An article published by the American Music Therapy Association strongly backs up this idea. In a study conducted among healthy mean and women, there was an increase in systolic and diastolic pressure, which are the first and second reading in blood pressure, during exposure to steady noise and music with high intensity peaks. Since heart rate and blood pressure work interchangeably, like when exercising, it is a strong indicator heart rate will be affected by the music’s genre based on the research. In summation, I predict that the tempo and melody of the music will have a direct correlation with heart rate.Variables:Manipulated Variable: The genre of music (Classical, Jazz, Pop, Techno)Responding Variable: The heart rate (BPM)Controlled Variables: Test subject, volume of music, source of music, environmentMaterials:A test subject between the 14 – 18 adolescent age rangeAny technology that can emit various genres of music (Cellphone, Computer etc.) – Choose one Classical, Jazz, Pop, and Techno genre songHeadphonesA method to record heart rate in beats per minute (Radial Pulse)Time keeping deviceQuiet environment to listen music inPen and Paper to record resultsProcedure:Find a quiet and comfortable environment for to listen to play the music in. Preferably with no external distractions.Allow the subject to sit in the chair in an upright position, ensuring that his/her back is against the backing of the chair and his/her feet are firmly planted in the ground.Place headphones in the subject’s two ears, but do not play any music yet. Wait for three minutes and record the subject’s pulse at the resting stage. Keep fingers on artery for 60 seconds and record the number of pulses you count. This is the initial BPM value.Begin playing the jazz song and allow the subject to listen to the song for three minutes on a constant volume.During the three minute time interval, note any changes in heart rate when finding their radial pulse.As the subject listens to the music, note changes in facial expression, skin temperature, skin color (paleness or redness), and involuntary movement as qualitative data.Allow the subject 3 minutes of silence before continuing with the rest of the trials.Repeat steps 5 – 8 until you have results for the remaining 3 genres of music. (Techno, Classical, Pop, in that order)Record all final results on a data table.Observations:Song Genre:RestingJazzTechnoClassicalPopBpm:6168756074Analysis: During this experiment, I noticed various qualitative observations. Each genre of music had a different effect on the subject. Some effects were subtle, while others were more noticeable. No changes in the skin color or body temperature were noted in this experiment. However, slight movements were present. During the classical music, the subject made subtle swaying movements and briefly closed their eyes like showing they were relaxed into it. During the pop and rap music, the head swaying became more “upbeat” and the subject smiled or lightly chuckled while their eyes were open. The techno genre had similar movements and expression as the pop music. Through the results we can see that there is also a clear distinction between the beats per minute in different genres. The classical music seemed to have reduced the heart rate, while the jazz music increased it by a fair amount. The pop and techno music coming in last, had the most profound increase in the overall Bpm of the subject.Conclusion:Through the experiment we were able to retrieve promising results. The classical music seemed to have a calming effect, whereas the jazz music increased seems to have increased the Bpm. The pop and techno songs dramatically increased the systolic and diastolic pressure, directly correlating with the fast tempo and loud melody. This experiment thoroughly supports my initial hypothesis in that loud songs with fast tempo, increase the heart rate and overall Bpm. This experiment can be expanded to possibly aid in the development of new therapeutic methods based for cardiac conditions based on music. It can also be used to help aid in the stressful lives of teenagers, often resulting in higher-than-normal heart rates. Studies indicate that music therapy can be utilized to improve the diagnosis of stroke patients. By extrapolating this data, we can conclude that certain types of music do indeed improve physical performance and regulate heart rate and blood pressure. In whole this experiment was a success and demonstrates the amazing effect that music can have on people physically through their heart rates.Bibliography:Knight, W. E. J., and N. S. Rickard. “Relaxing Music Prevents Stress-Induced Increases in Subjective Anxiety, Systolic Blood Pressure, and Heart Rate in Healthy Males and Females.” Journal of Music Therapy, vol. 38, no. 4, Jan. 2001, pp. 254–272., doi:10.1093/jmt/38.4.254.Hoffmann, Jella. “â??Play It Again, Samâ?. A Differentiating View on Repeated Exposure to Narrative Content in Media.” Communications, vol. 31, no. 3, Jan. 2006, doi:10.1515/commun.2006.024.Bernardi, L, et al. “Cardiovascular, Cerebrovascular, and Respiratory Changes Induced by Different Types of Music in Musicians and Non?Musicians: the Importance of Silence.”Heart, BMJ Group, Apr. 2006, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1860846/.”Effect of Music on Heart Rate.” UKEssays, www.ukessays.com/essays/biology/effect-music-heart-rate-4731.php.Listening LogsComposer: David HolsingerSongComposition DateReason Behind CompositionElements of the MusicAbram’s Pursuit1998 Abram’s Pursuit was commissioned by the Western Pennsylvania Band Directors Consortium. It was inspired by the 14th chapter of the Genes is. When Abram heard that his nephew Lot was taken captive, he armed three hundred and eighteen trained servants who were born in his house and went in pursuit of the invaders. Bright and livelyFast TempoHeavy brass and percussion alternatingTo Tame the Perilous Skies1992To Tame the Perilous Skies was commissioned by the 564th Tactical Air Command Band, Langley AFB, Virginia. It is dedicated not only to the exceptional men and women of the Tactical Air Command, but to the spirit of the modern military aviator, taming perilous skies that all men might live free of oppression.MelodiousMedium TempoBrass section orientedAlternating loud and soft momentsAmerican Faces1995American Faces was commissioned by Scott McCormick and Bands of America for the 1995 Bands of America National Honor Band.Holsinger has attempted in American Faces to musically allude to the multifarious qualities and standards that make up the “faces” of America. Lively piece with a lot of articulationsFast TempoHeavy brass Havendance1985Havendance was not commissioned, instead written by Holsinger for his daughter. This was the first of his works titled for the first of his children, Haven. It is built on an unrelenting rhythmic ostinato and variations.Rhythmic ostinatoMany variationsHeavy use of percussion section, especially drumsFestiva Jubiloso2000Festiva Jubiloso was commissioned for the Year 2000 South Dakota All-State Band by the South Dakota Bandmasters Association. Festiva Jubiloso was one of Holsinger’s later works and is a concert festival piece, with alternating musical components. Alternating musical componentsA punctuated aggressive syncopated motiveA spirited bassoon and flute duet that constantly reinvents itself in the orchestration, Bibliography”Biography.” David R Holsinger, davidrholsinger.com/published-music.