The main role of youth in preserving the traditionalIndonesian culture to face the threat of diffusion from globalization in thedigital era Muhammad IriandruPradipta Putra, Industrial EngineeringFaculty ofEngineeringUniversitasSebelas Maret SurakartaEmail: [email protected] ABSTRACTIndonesiahas been known as a nation with remarkable artistic works and traditionalcultures.
Traditional culture expressions in Indonesia have been so varybecause many ethnics are living in Indonesia with higher level of artisticcreativities and traditional culture expressions. In thedevelopment of national cultural life it is necessary for the youth to have apositive perception and need to participate in an effort to preserve thenational culture. But, they are moreproud to follow the foreign culture that enters into their lives and they arereluctant to preserve our own culture.
Imagine the our children in the futuredo not recognize the culture that we have, they only know the foreign culture thatgrowing rapidly. In this essay also discusses the influence of globalization inthe digital era on national culture which is the diffusion process will occurquickly. Lack of awareness of the preservation of our culture leads to anindifferent attitude toward the development of our culture and effect to ourculture that obscured by incoming foreign culture.
Surely, we also do not wantthe national culture that still exist also dissapear.Key word:Culture, National cultural, Difussion, Youth Preliminary Along with the rapid development of the times therehave been many changes on lifestyle in society. Behavior in cultures is onethat changes. Nowadays, society prefer to use incoming foreign cultures ratherthan using our own culture which has existed for a long time. It makes ourculture difficult to grow and even disappear. Majority of society now assumethat foreign culture is much better and freely from the rules of our ownculture. This is also possible because of our lack of filtering out the culturethat goes into our environment, so that foreign culture freely circulated amongus without through the screening process first. Coupled with globalization thatmakes foreign culture easier into Indonesia.
Globalization bring many positive and negativeinfluence. The positive impact of globalization, technology and transportationare more advanced, science is also evolving. But, because of the influence ofglobalization, there are many foreign cultures also come to our country.Because of that, many youth prefer foreign culture rather than traditionalculture. It is because of their mindset that if foreign culture is more modernand more popular, so their awareness in preserving traditional culture is vanished.Because of that, we associety should be worrying about the existancy of traditional culture. In thepast, the traditional culture in our country was uncountable because of itswide variety. Traditional dance, traditional language, traditional musical instruments,and many more.
But nowadays, there is just a few traditional culture in ourcountry. It is rare now to see youth willing to concern the traditional cultureof our country. Because their beliefs about traditional culture are wrong.
Theyare ashamed to admit if traditional culture is their culture.If we are filtering outthe incoming foreign culture wisely, then traditional culture has the greateropportunity to grow. We can not imagine if the foreign culture entered withoutany limitations. Our existing culture will be lost and abandoned. It will bedifferent if we can restrict the incoming foreign culture then our existingculture will still be used because there is still space to grow among thecommunity itself. Literature ReviewCultureCultureis the social behavior and norms in human societies. Culture is considered acentral concept in anthropologhy, encompassing the range of phenomena that aretransmitted through social learning in human societies.
Some aspects of humanbehavior, social practices such as culture, sxpenssive forms such as art,music, dance, ritual, and religion, and technologies such as tool usage,cooking, shelter and clothing are said to be cultural universals, found in allhuman societies. The concept of materialculture covers the physical expressionsof culture, such as technology, architecture and art, whereas the immaterialaspects of culture such as principles of social organization(including practices of political organization and social institution),mythology, philosopy, literature (both written and oral), and science comprisethe intangible heritage of a society.Culturein English is similarly as “budaya” in Indonesian.
The word “budaya” itselfroots from Sanskrit “budhayah” meaning as thought or intellectuality. Ingeneral, culture may be defined as a something produced by the thought andintellectuality of humans when they develop and maintain their life withintheir environment.Cultural DiffusionIn cultural anthropology and cultural geography, culturaldiffusion, as conceptualized by LeoFrobenius in his 1897/98 publication Derwestafrikanische Kulturkreis, is the spread of cultural items such asideas, styles, religions, technologies, languages, and etc. Betweenindividuals, wther within a single culture from one culture to another. It isdisticnt from the diffusion of innovations within a specific culture. Throughcultural diffusion, horizons are broadened and people become more culturallyrich. The mixing of world cultures throughdifferent ethnicities, religions, and nationalities has only increased withadvanced communication, transportation, and technology.
GlobalizationGlobalization is the increasing interaction of people, states, or countriesthrough the growth of the international flow of money, ideas, and culture.Globalization is primarily an economic process of integration that has socialand cultural aspects. It involves goods and services, and the economicresources of capital, technology, and data. The steamlocomotive, steamship, jetengine, and containerships are some of the advances in themeans of transport whilethe rise of the telegraph andits modern offspring, the Internet and mobilephones show development in telecommunications infrastructure.
All of these improvements we enjoy inthe modern era have been major factors in globalization and have generatedfurther interdependence of economic and cultural activities.SocietySociety isa group of peopleinvolved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing thesame geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same politicalauthority and dominant cultural expectations. Societies are characterized bypatterns of relationships (social relations) betweenindividuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions; a given societymay be described as the sum total of such relationships among its constituentof members. In the social sciences, a larger societyoften evinces stratificationor dominance patterns insubgroups.Youth Youth is the timeof life when one is young, and often means the time between childhood and adulthood (maturity). It isalso defined as “the appearance, freshness, vigor, spirit, and etc.
“. Its definitions of a specific age range varies, as youth is notdefined chronologically as a stage that can be tied to specific age ranges.Youth is an experience that may shape an individual’s level of dependency,which can be marked in various ways according to different culturalperspectives.DiscussionIndonesia is really a bigcountry. From Sabang to Merauke, Indonesiahas an estimated 17,508 islands, but only around 6.000 islands areinhabited.
It comprises five main islands, which are Sumatra, Jawa,Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua (the western half of Papua New Guinea). With apopulation of 258.316.051(CIA WorldFactbook, 2016)people, Indonesia is considered as thefourth most populous nation, and 58% of its people live in Java Island. Thelarge population also brings about the diversity.Indonesia has grown rapidlysince independence 72 years ago. Not only because of its vast area, Indonesiais also known as a country that has magnificent nature. Lots of very beautifultourist destinations, even one of them have entered as the world seven wonder.
Indonesiaalso has various ethnic group that widespread everywhere throughout the region.Each ethnic group has different languages, food, customs, traditions and etc.The culture of each ethnic group in Indonesia is very diverse, from culture thatheld annually, to culture that held daily. Ninety-fivepercent of over 300 ethnic groups in Indonesia are of native Indonesianancestry.
The ethnic groups in Indonesia, in order of size, are as follows:Javanese, which makes up nearly 42% of the total population; Sundanese, 31%;Malay, 3.7%; Maduranese, 3.3%, and others, 26%. The Javanese live mostlyin Java Island, but due to government transmigration programs, millions havemigrated to other islands throughout the archipelago.
There are also ethnicChinese populations, which make up 1% of the total population. Indians andArabs live mostly in urban areas. However,they can live together peacefully with spirit of “Bhinneka Tunggal Ika”. Indonesia is knownfor its diverse cultures. There is no exact number that can be mention thenumber of cultures in Indonesia. Around hundreds of cultures are widespreadthroughout Indonesia. Traditional culture in Indonesia can form traditional houses,dance, singing, clothing food, and etc.
Only few people just know the widelyknown culture such as Padang, Java, Kalimantan and others. In addition, thereare many areas that have cultural diversity. Lack of information of the otherscultures makes only few people know about that. Traditional culture has evolveuntil now.Indonesian culture and art reflects regional histories,relegions and influences of the archipelago’s mind-boggling array of ethnicgroups. Indonesia arts can be classified in to the three main streams withinIndonesia.
The first, is that of the outer Indonesia, the islands of Sumatra,Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, Papua and Maluku, which havestrong animist traditions. Carvings, weaving, pottery etc, have developed froma tribal art in which art objects are part of worship. The second stream isthat inner Indonesia, the islands of Java and Bali that have come under thegreatest influence from Hindu-Budha tradition. The Technique and styles thatbuilt Borobudur and the Indian Epicssuch as The Mahabarata, that form the basis for wayang theatre are still amajor influence in arts. The third influences is that of Islam, which not somuch introduced its own art & crafts traditions, but modified existingtraditions.
In history,Indonesian culture has existed since the time of the empire. Beginning aroundthe 2nd century, there are many empires in our country. The Kutai Empire,Tarumanegara, Singasari, Majapahit, Demak, Malaka and others are some large empiresthat had grown in Indonesia, even the Majapahit Empires is the largest empirein Indonesia.
Stretching form Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan, peninsula Malaya, untileast. Majapahit was one of the last major empires of the region and isconsidered to be one of the greatest and most powerful empires in the historyof Indonesia and Southeast Asia. TheMajapahit Empire influenced many Indonesian cultures from building to literaryarts.The culturecontinues to grow until now. However, the development of culture in Indonesiahas fluctuate in its journey. That cultures, should be preserved by us becauseof that is a valuable treasure that will make our country keep beautiful at itsway. As youth, we also should be proud to the traditional culture. But lately, the culturehas begun to be forgotten along with the emergence of a foreign culture, alsowe can say a modern culture.
Technological advancements coupled with the easierof access that can allow the foreign culture into Indonesia. In the current eraof globalization, access to foreign cultures in Indonesia is getting easier. Manyforeign life and foreign culture which is for youth as modern culture, caneliminate indigenous culture of Indonesia.Fidget spinner,slime, party, hip-hop music, and even Korean pop or Korean drama are someexamples of foreign cultures that enter Indonesia and spread to everywhere.Many of youth even kids just enjoy the trend. They think it will be cool ifthey follow the trend. Some of them, willing to spend a lot of money just tofollow the trend.
Actually, if we act ordinary to this trend and not tooexcessive then the bad consequences will not happen. The fact is quitedifferent, they follow this trend even they think this trend is everything.Because youth are more attracted tothese things, traditional cultures are threatened since youth prefer foreigncultures beside of their own culture.
As mentionedbefore, one of the key factors in the degradation of Indonesian culture is thereare no future generations who care about Indonesian culture. Many of youthprefer foreign cultures that they think more cool, modern, and not ancient. Comparedto youth, adults are knowing more about traditional culture and activelypreserving them.
Usually we see traditional dance or traditional music players thatare those who are no longer young. They always try to introduce traditional cultureto the public in the hope that there will be future generations who spirit toparticipate in preserving traditional culture.If we not doinganything, then that conditions will make the traditional culture vanished fromthe life of society. Even though, traditional culture is a very valuable assetand needs to be preserved. Traditional culture will lose with technologyadvances, that may be more interesting when compared to our culture.
With technologyadvances, people can easily get entertainment that makes them happy than justpreserving traditional culture.Living in thedigital era is a good advantage but can become very dependent to it. Most ofthe youth today can not be separated from that kind of technology in dailylife. Actually,the technology advancesis good if used for activities that are beneficial and in reasonable portions.The use of internet for lifestyle is one of them. Asosiasi Penyelenggara JasaInternet Indonesia (APJII) make a national survey of Indonesian internet usersin 2016.
The results show that the number of Internet users in Indonesia in2016 is 132.7 million users or about 51% of the total population of Indonesia.Mostly, Internet users are on Java Island with a total of 86.339.350 users orabout 65% of the total use of the Internet. Compared to the users of InternetIndonesia in 2014 there are 88.1 million users.
There is an increase of 44.6million within 2 years (2014 – 2016) and this number will continue to growevery year.The advancement ofinformation technology or communications technology has been trigger thecultural diffusion, while also becoming an alternative to get entertainment forthe society especially youth. As a result, there is no interest to enjoy thetraditional performing arts. For the example is the traditional art of wayangorang on Balekambang Park Surakarta. Wayang orang is one of the traditionalculture which is usually played with two until ten people, the show should bevery interesting.
But in Balekambang, there is just a few people that enjoy theshow and there is no youth in there. This is unfortunate since the wayang orangis one of traditional Indonesian art that we can get the moral messages fromthe story.Wayang orang is asmall example of the traditional arts that began to be forgotten due to theincessant foreign culture entering Indonesia. It could be that this phenomenonis not only experienced by traditional Javanese arts, but also in variousexpressions of traditional art in various places in Indonesia. Globalizationseems to be a boomerang in the cultural aspect for our country.
Slowly but sure,globalization has caused the traditional culture vanished. Youth choose spendtheir time accessing the internet than the learn of traditional dance fromtheir own culture. They will feel proud can imitate the foreign style andconsider the traditional culture are not cool and very ancient.If we reviewed through a global aspect, globalizationcoupled with the rapid advancement of technology becomes a challenge for allaspects of life as well as those associated with culture. This era, demands ourreadiness to adjust the future and be able to take every opportunity.Traditional culture in Indonesia is actually more creative and not imitative,which becomes a problem is to maintain the identity of our nation.
As a simpleexample, the culture in Indonesia is now almost eroded, people liveindividually and do not want to know with others is a reflection that seemstoday.Culture should bepriceless, but now it becomes not valuable in the society. This disrespectfulattitude has a bad effect on the development of traditional culture in ourcountry. One of the way to preserve traditional culture is the attitudes andbehavior of their own people, especially youth as the next generation.
If inevery person there is a strong nationalism spirit, preserving the traditionalculture is a pride, but the youth generation today assume the opposite. Theybelieve that strive to preserve the culture its a compulsion. So the sustainabilityof the traditional culture also depends heavily on the youth who havenasionalism spirit.But, society alsodo not necessarily close themselves from the world. We must keep our mind openand always be prepared if there is a greater wave of globalization. Alwaysfollow the positive trend and technology advances is also needed so thatIndonesia is not getting worse.
Globalization will always provide change, wemust choose wisely whether these cultures are positive or negative. That way wecan accept foreign cultures smartly by emphasizing nationalismAs youth, we must besmart in exploiting the technology advances. Actually technology advances canbe used for preserving traditional culture. Such as creating an applicationthat contains about the culture of Indonesia and packaged with attractivecontent. So, the children who since they born are in the digital era canparticipate in preserving traditional culture at least introduced them to traditionalcultures. If youth are not wise in using technology advances, of course it willmake the culture of Indonesia will gradually dissapear because the next generationis prefer digital entertainment and choose to imitate the foreign life which isthey see in their social media. If that is allowed, not only the traditionalculture that will disappear but also make the pride of the country is reduced.
They became a person who forgot his identity as a society who live in Indonesia.For the youngergeneration, who will be successors of Indonesia, have big spirit of nationalismare needed evenits a must. Not only for the sake of politics that we arerequired to have nationalist spirit, but in maintaining and preserving theculture is also needed. We need to be aware to maintain the historical heritagethat is not easy, it takes a great sacrifice too. A few of youth is not enough,need all of youth in Indonesia to move together to save traditional culture, togethernessto support each other and fill each other is needed too.
In other words,preserving the traditional culture is also required compactness and supporteach other to block the negative impacts from globalization in digital era. KesimpulanIndonesia is a large country with all its uniquenessand cultural diversity that is widespread from Sabang to Merauke. TraditionalIndonesian culture is an ancestral heritage that has existed since long timeago. However, the existence of traditional culture began to erode because mostyouth who are the next generation of the nation prefer foreign culture than itsown culture. This is exacerbated by the big wave of globalization and rapidtechnological advances so that youth prefer digital entertainment beside oftraditional culture.Living in the digital era is challenging.
Society,especially youth, must be smart in respond the wave of globalization. All ofyouth should be smart in choosing which foreign culture are positive and whichare negative. By filtering it first, then the traditional culture will stillalive but also remain aware the trend. Youth must be creative in exploiting technologicaladvancesin order to preserve the traditional culture. Coupled with the spiritof nationalism, youth must grow up with a pride being the next generation ofIndonesia Referencess