The 2017 elections in European countries sparked discussions among one portion of the European population and a satisfaction among the other. While the outcomes of these elections favoured, generally, the already leading centrist and liberal parties, multiple European nations showed a tendency to swing towards right-wing populist and nationalist political parties shocking a portion of the population. German party AfD (Alternative for Germany) experienced a positive swing of 7.9% allowing the party to come third during Germany’s federal elections.During France’s presidential elections, the opinion polls were led by Marine Le Pen of the National Front and favoured her until the second round-In Austria, the FPÖ (Freedom party of Austria) came short only by 5.5% against the elected party, receiving a third of the Austrian votes during the country’s legislative elections.Dutch PVV (Party of Freedom) made gains to reach second place with 13.1% of the elected members in the House of Representatives.
It became clear that those citizens all have experienced an increased tendency for nationalistic views. The individual today is more inclined in identifying as a member of its nation rather than a global citizen. KA1 This increase in popularity for national identity is KA2 endangering international cooperation between fellow nations and has become a reason for the fragmentation of Europe. This so-called “EU crisis” will potentially lead to tightened borders, decrease cooperation and hinder the general process of integration of foreigners.
In pursuit of a nation’s best interest and aware of crippling international relations, global leaders must utilize knowledge of political science to find balance between the country’s national and international policies. Nationalism itself is a term defined by political science and has acquired a negative connotation due to historical events. With greater support for nationalistic views come more nationalistic policies which aim at strengthening the concept of sovereignty. A leader, whether an individual or a group, must be aware of causes affecting shifts in the wants and needs of a society. Threat for own culture and security as well as fear of terrorism and loss of domestic jobs are legitimate arguments UK politicians used in favour of Brexit and contributed in dividing the population’s view on UK’s role in the EU to vote 48% against and 52% in for UK’s withdrawal from the European Union. Finding balanced political solutions benefiting the rights and opportunities of a nation’s people while simultaneously striving for benefits acquired from international cooperation is a daunting task, especially during a time where a growing portion of the population fails to see the benefits of a global communityKA3 .
Secondly, it is law that allows political science its varietyKA4 . Global leaders today are under the influence of laws that affect the lives of the people as well as the extent to which decision makers are allowed to act. Deeper understanding of law is important because it determines whether nationalistic views are to be condemned or accepted. Law is both the compass for current leaders and the outcoming legal framework for future leaders.
Moreover, nationalistic tendencies directly affect the economy of the respective country. There are implications on a macroeconomic level as well as on an international level. Global leaders working with nations with prevalent nationalistic views or experiencing an increasingly right-wing tendencies within their own country need to find delicate solutions that condemns no political view but demonstrate the economic benefits of working collaboratively. Nationalistic leaders might prefer to protect domestic firms and workers by the use of protectionist policies. Leaders with with knowledge of both political science and economics would ease on protectionism allowing a greater degree of free trade. For instance, an ageing population is more dependent on imports, makes the nation a weaker trade partner and therefore it will depend heavily on the manufacturing of others. If additionally fuelled with increasing nationalistic views, it might very well be self-destructive in that case, considering all other variables are non-effective. One must therefore connect these two studies in order to protect and further assure the well-being of a society.
Furthermore, a global leader who wishes to tackle extreme nationalistic tendencies must also understand the mentality and the motives of the population. Nationalism’s strength lies with the necessity for a survival. KA5 Often loss of identity might cause fear within a group if by identity one refers to his or her home country, especially in our interconnected world where use of own resources to assist others is seen as a waste. KA6 Understanding where the motivation to support nationalism comes from, how to regulate human behaviour and persuade people into living in a global society rather than in one restricted by physical borders, is where psychology also plays a role. Lack of acceptance for the concept of a global citizen seems like a primarily psychological struggle. A leader must be aware that this tendency for nationalistic views arises when in the minds of the people, nationality is the only determinant of their identity. Citizens look for safety in groups to survive and gain benefits together. Psychology might very well show that the bigger the group, the safer one might feel. KA7
In conclusion, the PPLE disciplines play an equaly important role in solving the global issue of nationalistic tendencies that might endanger international cooperation; Law provides us with the foundation of limits and moral restrictions dealing with violations within a society,KA8 : It can be used in politics to determine the nature of nationalism, whether it has a purposeful or harmful form; Politics, in turn, determines the way a nation is to be administrated, whether more focus is to be put on national or international topics; Economics works as a motive to understand the gains and losses of trade, helps satisfy the needs of people domestically and provides theory about the interdependence of various nations; Psychology helps global leaders to understand and respond to human behaviour, to see through their reasoning when justifying their views. A leader with an insights in all of these disciplines can assess the issue of dangerously nationalistic views and deal with the problem in a much more delicate manner than someone seeing such events from one perspective only. This is the type of global leadership our interconnected world is calling for.
KA1Wasn’t that always the case – everyone identify itself by its family, heritage, city, country. Identifying as a global citizen is rather new concept. So I would reformulate it as “An individual today is even more inclined to identify her/himself as a member of its nation rather than a global citizen.”
KA2″has a potential to endanger” or “could potentially endanger”
KA3Is this a right word? Community sounds very weak and a bit local. Maybe global reach or global politics. I myself cannot find the word.
KA4I don’t understand it. It is law that allows variety to political science? Or variety to the tendencies in citizen’s political views?
KA5Natioanlist relies heavily on fears for survival, identity and pride.
KA6I would take this out, It makes this sentence really cumbersome to read.
The social psychology of nations includes national identity (the individual’s sense of belonging to a group), and national pride (self-association with the success of the group).
We associate with the successes of the group – e.g. when our football team wins, we say “we won”, if it looses we say “they lost”. It is perfectly natural to have nationalistic tendencies, as much as it is natural to have attachment to your own family. That is why even more psychology is needed to find the ways to not judge on those tendencies, but find ways to overcome it.
KA8Not sure about this comma