Thegroundwater circulation and the downward flow of pollutants through rocks andsoils are depending on the hydro geological condition of the materials morespecifically hydraulic properties such as permeability, porosity, transivityetc (Tsegaye, 2006). The flow and chemical constituent of ground water arecontrolled by the type of lithology, distribution, thickness and structure ofhydro geological units through which it moves (UNESCO, 1992; Tsegaye, 2006).Moreoverthe stresses due to tectonics and weathering govern the hydro geochemicalcharacteristics of earth materials (Tamiru et al, 2003; Tsegaye, 2006).
Proximityof a landfill to a groundwater well is an important environmental criterion inthe landfill site selection so that wells may be protected from the runoff andleaching of the landfill. Hence, solid waste disposal should be placed awayfrom water wells. Otherwise, it can have irretrievable human and environmentaleffects. As aresult, proximity from groundwater well was considered as an importantcriterion for this research.
Accordingly, 337 groundwater well points arecurrently functional, it was obtained from Sulaymaniyah directory of WaterResources, and Proximity Buffer tools were used to prepare buffer zones aroundeach well. Chang et al. (2007) described as landfill should not be sited within50m buffer distance from water wells. However Al-Anbari et al. (2015) used 400m and Kabite et al. (2012) used 500 m Hasan et al. (2009) used 500- 1000m and Jamjan(2009) used 700m as a minimum distance from which landfill can be safely sitedin (Gizachew, 2011).
In this study, a buffer zone of more than 1000 m aroundeach and every well points was adopted in order to protect ground water fromcontamination. Any distance less than 1000 m was, thus, given a grading value of zero and any distance greater than1000 m was given a score value of 10. (Figure 3.3)