The major ethical principles that guideresearchers in their works, respect the persons as human dignity, beneficence,and justice.
Respect for persons. The principle of respectfor human as an individual involves acknowledge the existence of human beinghas value for themselves. Researchers must equally regard the honour of those areinvolving in research. The moral requirement is based on the acceptance of theparticipant’s autonomy and protecting those with subside autonomy. It is theresponsibility of the researcher to get informed consent from studyparticipants and to maintain privately on their behalf. From the beginning tillthe end of the research process to the capacity of human beings to make theirown decision (voluntariness).
When the participants are unable to make theirown decisions or have lack of ability to do so, respect for them by empoweringthem when possible and providing for their protection as necessary. Researchersshould respect the privacy, confidentiality and cultural sensitivities ofparticipants and what the relevant things, of their communities. Any specificagreement made with the participants or the community should be fulfilled.
The principle of beneficence is between thepotential benefit and harm of participation. The likely benefit of the researchmust justify any risks of harm or discomfort to participants or the widercommunity. Researchers have an obligation to maximize possible benefits andminimize possible harm. Researchers are responsible for designing the researchto minimize the risks of harm or discomfort to participants, clarifying toparticipants the potential benefits and risk, and the welfare of theparticipants in the research.
Where there is no likely benefit to participants,the risk to participants should be lower than would be ethically acceptablewhere there are such likely benefits. The principle of justice involves regard forhuman similarity that each person share with others, that means should treatequally. It means a fair distribution of the burdens and benefits of researchand encompasses fair treatment in recruitment of participants and in the reviewof research. Researchers must ensure that the vulnerable are not exploited andthat eligible candidates who may benefit from participation are not excludedwithout good cause.