The capacity of human beings to make their own


The major ethical principles that guide
researchers in their works, respect the persons as human dignity, beneficence,
and justice.

Respect for persons. The principle of respect
for human as an individual involves acknowledge the existence of human being
has value for themselves. Researchers must equally regard the honour of those are
involving in research. The moral requirement is based on the acceptance of the
participant’s autonomy and protecting those with subside autonomy. It is the
responsibility of the researcher to get informed consent from study
participants and to maintain privately on their behalf. From the beginning till
the end of the research process to the capacity of human beings to make their
own decision (voluntariness). When the participants are unable to make their
own decisions or have lack of ability to do so, respect for them by empowering
them when possible and providing for their protection as necessary. Researchers
should respect the privacy, confidentiality and cultural sensitivities of
participants and what the relevant things, of their communities. Any specific
agreement made with the participants or the community should be fulfilled.

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The principle of beneficence is between the
potential benefit and harm of participation. The likely benefit of the research
must justify any risks of harm or discomfort to participants or the wider
community. Researchers have an obligation to maximize possible benefits and
minimize possible harm. Researchers are responsible for designing the research
to minimize the risks of harm or discomfort to participants, clarifying to
participants the potential benefits and risk, and the welfare of the
participants in the research. Where there is no likely benefit to participants,
the risk to participants should be lower than would be ethically acceptable
where there are such likely benefits.

The principle of justice involves regard for
human similarity that each person share with others, that means should treat
equally. It means a fair distribution of the burdens and benefits of research
and encompasses fair treatment in recruitment of participants and in the review
of research. Researchers must ensure that the vulnerable are not exploited and
that eligible candidates who may benefit from participation are not excluded
without good cause.