The revolutionized of 3G in the next generation of technology has meets a big impacts to the telecommunication industry. Apart from feature of 3G systems, where covering hot-spots with high data rates and a systems with full coverage when increasing the speed of communication. Recently, the aim of this study were to screen how 3G systems improve user experience, 3G systems capabilities and the characteristics of 3G technology. Subsequent to this, some survey had been carried out in order to get information about the demand for the high data speed and the requirement for more efficient applications in order to overcome the lack functionality provided by the previous technology. 3G in other word known as UMTS (universal mobile telecommunication system) where to provide the users a wireless access to the data and information.
3G is the third generation of wireless technologies after 1G and 2G. It has improved a lot from the old wireless technologies such as the high speed data transmission and communication, the progressive in multimedia access and improvement in global roaming. It also allows people to get faster and more convenient communication, transmission of information so that people can enjoy more exciting services, more convenient and efficient production and life.
3G is usually employed with the mobile phone or tablet that has a 3G functionality so that it can connect to the internet in order to make voice and video calls, to download and upload the files or datas and to surf the web to get an informations or play an online game and so on.
3G standard wireless network must be able to support different data transfer speeds. For instance, it can support at least 2Mbps, 384kbps and 144kbps transmission speed respectively in the environment of indoor, outdoor, and driving. It can handle a variety of media forms such as images, music, video streaming and provide multiple information services including web browsing, conference calls, e-commerce. It also supports efficient transport of voice, data, image, multimedia, etc, with its strong system capacity. The emergence of 3G technology has brought new opportunities to informatization and modernization of water resources for example and many more.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
The quick advancement of versatile broadcast communications was a standout amongst the most remarkable examples of overcoming adversity of the 1990s. The 2G systems started their operation toward the start of the decade (the first GSM network was opened in 1991 in Finland), and from that point forward they have been growing and developing consistently. In September 2002 there were 460 GSM arranges on air around the world, together serving 747.5 million endorsers.
Around the same time that GSM was monetarily propelled, ETSI had as of now began the institutionalization work for the next generation mobile telecommunication network. This new framework was known as the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS). The work was done in ETSI’s specialized board of trustees Special Mobile Group (SMG). SMG was additionally isolated into subgroups SMG1– SMG12 (SMG5 was stopped in 1997), with every subgroup gaining practical experience in specific parts of the framework. The 3G improvement work was not done just inside ETSI. There were different associations and research programs that had a similar reason.
The European Commission subsidized research projects, for example, Research on Propelled Communication Technologies in Europe (RACE I and II) and Propelled Communication Technologies and Services (ACTS). The UMTS Forum was made in 1996 to quicken the way toward characterizing the fundamental principles. Notwithstanding Europe, there were additionally various 3G programs in the United States, Japan, and Korea. A few media communications organizations additionally had their own exploration exercises.
A critical jump forward was made in 1996 and 1997, when both the Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (ARIB) and ETSI chose WCDMA as their 3G radio interface. In addition, NTT DoCoMo, Japanese largest telecommunications operator issued a delicate for a WCDMA model trial framework to the greatest mobile telecommunications product. This constrained numerous makers to make a key choice, which implied expanding their WCDMA inquire about exercises or at minimum remaining out of the Japanese 3G market.
Later the most important organizations in broadcast communications joined powers in the 3GPP program, the objective of which is to create the details for a 3G framework in view of the ETSI Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) radio interface and the upgraded GSM/GPRS Mobile Application Part (MAP) center system. Right now it is the 3GPP association that bears the best obligation regarding the 3G improvement work.
The radio range initially apportioned for UMTS is shown in Figure 1.
As can be seen, the portion is the same in Europe and Japan, yet in the United States the majority of the IMT-2000 range has been assigned to 2G PCS systems, a considerable lot of which are sent on little 5-MHz sub-groups. Subsequently, proposition like CDMA2000 are alluring to North American administrators. This 3G proposition is in reverse good with the IS-95B framework, also, they can both exist in a similar range in the meantime. The correct IMT-2000 recurrence groups are 1,885– 2,025 MHz and 2,110– 2,200 MHz. From these the satellite part of IMT-2000 takes 1,980– 2,010 MHz and 2,170– 2,200 MHz.
Taking all things together, the 3G advancement work has demonstrated that improvement of the new frameworks is these days accomplished increasingly inside the media communications industry itself. The organizations join to frame consortia, which at that point deliver particular recommendations for the official institutionalization associations for a formal endorsement. This outcomes in a speedier particular improvement process, as these organizations regularly have more accessible assets than intergovernmental associations.
Likewise, the guidelines might be of higher quality (or if nothing else more appropriate for the genuine usage) when they have been composed by their real end clients. Interestingly, this additionally implies the institutionalization process is effortlessly commanded by a couple of enormous broadcast communications organizations and their interests.
A typical 3G network is shown in Fig.1. Contrary to a typical wireline architecture, which is relatively flat, cellular networks are highly centralized. A user equipment (UE) device first goes through the radio access network (RAN) to Node B, and then to the radio network controller (RNC) to reach the core network (CN).
The CN consists of serving GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) support nodes (SGSNs) and gateway GPRS support nodes (GGSNs). SGSNs convert mobile data into Internet Protocol (IP) packets and send them to the GGSNs through the GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP).
GGSNs serve as gateways between the cellular core network and the Internet. This means that every IP packet sent to a UE must go through a GGSN. RDCs store multiple SGSNs, and NDCs collocate GGSNs. From the NDC, the data is routed to the Internet. This centralized architecture is ideal for forward caching.
RNC also do radio resource management (RRM) functions to commit the stability of the radio path and the quality of service (QoS) of radio connections by effective sharing and management of radio resources besides the changing and directing network element in the RAN. The RRC protocol is deployed for all RRM-related control functions such as the setup, configuration, maintenance and release of radio bearers between the UE and the RNC. The RRC protocol also conveys all non-access stratum signalling between the UE and the CN.
To handle the radio resources, the RRC protocol acquaintances a state machine to each UE, which is retained synchronized at the UE and the RNC via RRC signalling messages. The RNC manages the transitions between the RRC states based on information it obtains from the UEs and the Node-Bs on available radio resources, conditions of the currently used radio bearers, and requests for communication activity.
Fig. 2 shows that, there are typically four RRC states, given in order of increasing energy consumption and data rate: idle, cell-PCH, cell-FACH and cell-DCH.
Fig.2. RRC states in UMTS. The figure on the left shows the typical number of signalling messages exchanged within the RAN for each transition. The other figures show the approximate energy consumption and maximum data rate at the UE.
The RRC states is describe in more details as below:
1) Idle: This is the initial state when the UE is turned on. In this state, the UE does not have a signalling connection with the RNC, and therefore the RNC does not know the location of the UE. Its orientation is known by the CN at the precision of the orientation area or routing area, which is based on the most recent mobility signalling the UE performed with the CN. Any downlink activity heading for a UE in idle mode will necessitate paging to detect the UE at the cell level. Since the UE does not have an RNC connection, it cannot transmit any signalling or data until an RNC connection has been constructed.
2) FACH: The UE is in affiliated mode, and the radio connection between the UE and the RNC uses only common channels which allow low-rate data transmission.
3) DCH: The UE is in affiliated mode, and the radio connection uses resources committed to the UE. While in DCH, the UE may use divided channels, committed channels or both. The data rate of the connection is notably greater than the FACH state, but energy use is also higher.
4) PCH: This is a low-energy state that lets the UE to preserve its RNC connection and thus stay in affiliated mode, but it cannot transmit or sustain any traffic while in this state. While in PCH, the UE pay attentions to paging occasions on the paging channel. This state is elective and it can be qualified or disqualified by the mobile network operators (MNO) as stated to their procedures. Even though the PCH state is a low-energy state, the UE still uses more power than in the idle state. Thus, some MNOs choose to disqualified the PCH state to let the UE to go back to idle mode instantly and thus decrease its energy usage.
The RRC protocol was designed to manage the limited radio resources among multiple UEs and to decrease energy use at the UE. For that reason biased towards downgrading the UE to a lower state as soon as possible, especially if the UE is in the DCH or FACH state. Indeed, as the number of mobile phones entering UMTS networks has rised, the industry has presented developments and modifications to get more data rate out of limited radio resources and to upgrade the energy use of mobile phones.
IV. ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
In this part, 3G systems as well known as key to in providing faster connectivity and better entertainment applications to the users. 3G technology more better in transferring information or data through wireless as it is designed for multimedia communication. The first requirement is 3G phone that was designed to have a 3G functionality where the ability to surf internet, download file or songs and videos, stream movies and so on.
Users need to subscribe a data plan or network plan to get the services. In order to satisfied the users, one of the best features in 3G technology is provides services like higher data transfer rates which enables the users to view the latest information like news, weather report, economic information, sports and many more. Utilizing this technology only required a few minutes for the downloading process.
Next, the evolution of 3G technology where it depends on the way users communicate, combining together communications and mobility. The main goal 3G were revolutionized is about too meets its fourth generation (4G) that will improved in performance and capabilities wireless access technologies compare to previous one. The mobile communications organization has invented in three stages, and three generation have become visible. Each one has provided more flexibility and usability than the previous ones. Generations are known as First Generation, Second Generation and Third Generation.
The evolution of 3G wireless standards is shown in Figure 2 below
Let’s have a quick review on these generations.
1st Generation: Only voice calls can be made inside one’s country without roaming services with helped of analog phones.
2nd Generation: By digital mobile phone systems which more facilities can be use like fax, data and messaging as well as worldwide roaming in many countries service for voice calls.
3rd Generation: Systems is upgradable to multimedia services that increase data rates allow users experienced video streaming, high quality audio and other applications also internet services through mobile phones.
Futhermore, 3G technology is commonly implement in smart phones where users are exposed to 3G features and multimedia services like web browsing, video conferencing and downloading music. This has give massive impacts in technology and communication systems and there’s a lot of advantages to 3G. In real life, 3G system is very useful to people and ease for them to communicates each other even the person is far or not at the area. As example, a manager can conduct a teleconference with clients to discuss an upcoming presentation while driving or wherever he at. He can going through the latest version, make edits online, all while talking. Users can be able to experiences of mobile video on demand to get news, sports highlights, and video clips anytime on their mobile devices. 3G gives mobile staff access to critical applications like Customer Relationship Management (CRM) applications. For example, field engineers can view a customer’s profile from the road, update their files, and even close the trouble ticket while on site. Waiter or waiteress at restaurant can create and place orders while still at the customer’s location to make it fast services.
These provide access to traffic-view cameras, Internet access, gaming, and video-streaming. People can perform all those utilities with their mobile devices but at higher speed than before. It provides you with faster connectivity, faster internet access, and music entertainment with improved quality. Users can call their friend and have a video call facility. The clarity is better and the facility can be enjoyed as long as both of you are using the 3G technology. You can use your mobile phone as a modem for your computer and mail the important documents. Downloading games and songs is much faster with this technology. You can download your favourite games in your mobile and start playing. You can also download the music videos or simply the songs. The technology enable for much faster download.
Hence it will take only few minutes to download movie clips or albums. You can also view the news headlines get information about the evening weather so that you can plan your party. You can find out the latest baseball score and any latest news about your favourite sport. The 3G phones with their advanced feature will also enable you to watch exciting highlights of your favourite sport. With the increased speed and improved quality of the services provided in the 3G phones, you can view the movie clips and the music videos with clearer picture than with the 2.5G technology mobiles.
The 3G technology provide you with the data transmission speed of up to 2Mbps when you are using the phone in stationary mode. It also provides high degree of connectivity and increased networking and most importantly the resistance to noise. The technology has in fact increased the bit rate thus enabling the service providers to provide high speed internet facilities, increased call volumes and host of the multimedia applications to their customers. The bandwidth and location information available to 3G devices gives rise to applications not previously available to mobile phone users.
Meanwhile, the 3G system were upgradable to better performance and services which leads to various features of 3G technology. The basic feature of 3G is fast data rates and with increasing of this data rates services like video on demand (VOD), Global Positioning System (GPS), Mobile TV, Video Conferencing, Location Based Service (LBS) and many more.
Third generation technology is more efficiency and flexible because it is able to allow wide network coverage with a low costs and meets the required characteristics of 3G technology such as High Bandwidth, High speed data transmission, Improved voice quality, Global roaming across network, Improved security and so on. As example, high bandwidth is requires in order to allow people quick and easy access to multimedia services and Internet.
Users can make reservations, bills payment and update social networking wherever they at. Transmission speed up to 2Mbps high speed data is to satisfied users when they used this technology in browsing internet, downloading or uploading files so that users will not facing any nuisance and easy their works.
Last but not least, 3G technology in Malaysia is still new but demand for 3G have potential to increase more and widely. Usually in Malaysia, 3G services is dominated by the higher income consumer as the mobile devices that support 3G is expensive and 3G charges is high to the users. Many infrastructures had been built to widened 3G coverage throughout the whole peninsular. Oftenly, this project are highly costs and at the same time risen up their investment. So logically the rates of 3G charge to the users is expensive. 3G services is mostly use for web browsing, downloading and uploading data because it is more faster than the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). With the existence of 3G systems, government objective is to make more competition among the telecommunication sector by giving more licenses to them who ever can give the best of 3G services. Many initiatives have been invented in order to make sure that Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Malaysia is always in advanced.
3G mobile communication system is not only capable to deliver original voice communications, but also developes communications capacity and voice quality. Moreover, as the 3G spectrum in the data business efficiency rise 3 times more than 2G, spectrum bandwidth expansion makes the mobile network provide various types of data and multimedia communications. 3G technology also has a magnificent benefit that it has capability of high-speed data download. Compared with 2.5G (GPRS/MAlx) 100k speed, 3G can achieve around 300k-1M.