The able to be predicted. For example, the more

The study found that variations in
instructional time was influenced by several characteristics such as, school
level (elementary, middle, high), achievement level, ethnicity, and free or
reduced-price lunch status.  Elementary
principals spent more time on instructional activities than high schools.  High school principals spent less time on
walkthroughs.  Lower achieving schools with
a higher number of Black students and free or reduced-price lunch students had principals
who devoted more time to instructional activities, such as professional
development (Grissom, Loeb, & Master, 2013, p, 436-438). 

            The study
also found that principals overall time spent on instructional activities was
not linked to student achievement.  When
the study looked at individual instructional activities, more benefits were
able to be predicted.  For example, the
more time spent coaching, evaluating, and developing programs in math predicted
greater math achievement for both students and the school.  The instructional leadership practice that
was observed most commonly was informal class walkthroughs.  The study found that these informal class
walkthroughs had little to no effect on student achievement.  However, in classrooms of schools that emphasized
walkthroughs as a form of professional development, there was an impact on
student achievement. (Grissom et al., 2013, p, 436-438).

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