Stubble chemicals, which result in respiratory problems, are released

Stubble burning inPunjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh leads to raising air pollution to an alarminglevels in the national capital region. The crop residue can be reused in aneco-friendly way by preparing organic manure using compost pit technique.Further this manure can be coated with urea, potassium nitrate and ammoniumphosphate at required concentration to act as slow release fertilizer tocontrol the soil pollution due  tooveruse of chemical fertilizer. This study will be using 3R’s principle tomanage stubble waste to give environmental sustainable solution for the airpollution control caused by carbon dioxide released in the atmosphere byburning also.Stubble burning is the deliberate setting fire of thestraw stubble thatremains after wheat and other grains have been harvested. The practice waswidespread until the 1990s, when governments increasingly restricted its use. Theadvantages of Stubble burning are that they quickly clears the field and ischeap, kills weeds, including those resistant to herbicide, kills slugs andother pests and can reduce nitrogen tie-up. However, it has a number of harmfuleffects on the environment like loss of nutrients, pollution from smoke etc.

Every year in Punjab, about 7 to 8 million metric tons of paddy residueis burnt openly. Toxic chemicals, which result in respiratory problems, arereleased in the atmosphere. Farmers burn the paddy stubble as it involves nocost. Burning fields also affects the quality of the soil, robbing it of vitalnutrients. The nationalcapital Delhi is the most affected by bad air quality as it lies close toPunjab and Haryana where paddy burning is a common phenomenon.Developingefficient crop fertilization practices have become more and more important due tothe ever increasing global demand for the food production.

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Firstly the stubblewaste can be utilized to prepare manure using simple and cheap compost pittechnique and further conversion to slow release fertilizer.  One of the approaches to improve the efficiencyof phosphate and urea fertilizer is by interaction of these fertilizer throughnano composites that are able to control the release of these fertilizer as slowrelease fertilizer (SRF). SRF have the advantage of being more environmentallyfriendly and reduces pollution effects due to overuse of conventionalfertilizer.   Research Objectives·        To develop a biodegradable, cheap andenvironment friendly safe manure/ slow release fertilizers.·        To study effects of pH, temperature,moisture, microorganisms, acidity, soil type, etc. on the releasing rate ofnutrients from the manure/SRF/CRFs.·        To develop the degradable coatingsubstances for the stubble bio wastes to reduce the “tailing” effect and theaccumulation of overuse of fertilizers in the soil. ·        To develop the greener methods forpreparation of manure/ slow release fertilizers.

·        To study the effect of manure/ SRFs onplant growth and development. Methodology:Inthe present study, manure/slow release fertilizer will be prepared usingstubble waste and their effect will be studied on the growth and development ofvarious plants. The stubble waste materials will collected from Delhi and neighboringstates.MaterialUsed will beStubblewasteFertilizersUsed:v  Ureav  PotassiumNitratev  AmmoniumPhosphate MethodologyPart –I Preparation of organic manureusing compost pit techniquePart-II: Development of the Bio degradable matrix from the stubble waste andcoated with different fertilizersPart-III: Development of SRFs Composite Based onNanoparticles Encapsulated Bio-wastesPart-IV: To Study the Effect of Synthesized manure/Fertilizers on the Growth and Development of various plants.Projectoutcome§  In view of the growing importance ofvalorization of stubble waste, for the first time the present study will reportthe preparation of manure /slow releasingfertilizers (SRFs) from stubble waste. For the first timethe present study will reports the synthesis of manure/ SRFs from ureamodified hydroxyapatite as nano fertilizers and their effects were studied onvarious plants.

§  The prepared manure / slow releasing fertilizers (SRFs) ­ will be eco-friendly, with low bio-toxicity and improvednutrient utilization efficiency (NUE). Thesynthesis of manure/SRFs from stubble waste will be done using Green Chemistry Protocols. Themethod designed will be using very simple procedure for synthesis of manure/SRFsat lower temperature and atmospheric pressure, reducing equipment and energycosts.

  It will provide a low costproduction alternative in terms of both material and energy.§  Thepresent study would serve as an initiative to make the farmers/ consumers moreaware about environment friendly manure/SRFs. This can bring stricter norms andfertilizer recommendation/ dosage as in the western countries and bring betterproduct in the society.

 In comparison to conventional fertilizers theprepared manure/SRFs,  in this projectwill help to combat environmental pollution problems. It is very simple tohandle and can be easily applied in the field. SRFs prepared serve as analternative to commercial fertilizers that are very hazardous to theenvironment. Smartsolution of stubble waste burning  byutilizing the waste for preparing Manure/Slow Release Fertilizers using the pitcomposting and nano techniques Problem statementStubble burning inPunjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh leads to raising air pollution to an alarminglevels in the national capital region. The crop residue can be reused in aneco-friendly way by preparing organic manure using compost pit technique.Further this manure can be coated with urea, potassium nitrate and ammoniumphosphate at required concentration to act as slow release fertilizer tocontrol the soil pollution due  tooveruse of chemical fertilizer.

This study will be using 3R’s principle tomanage stubble waste to give environmental sustainable solution for the airpollution control caused by carbon dioxide released in the atmosphere byburning also. Brief review about the problemStubble burning is the deliberate setting fire of thestraw stubble thatremains after wheat and other grains have been harvested. The practice waswidespread until the 1990s, when governments increasingly restricted its use. Theadvantages of Stubble burning are that they quickly clears the field and ischeap, kills weeds, including those resistant to herbicide, kills slugs andother pests and can reduce nitrogen tie-up. However, it has a number of harmfuleffects on the environment like loss of nutrients, pollution from smoke etc.Every year in Punjab, about 7 to 8 million metric tons of paddy residueis burnt openly. Toxic chemicals, which result in respiratory problems, arereleased in the atmosphere. Farmers burn the paddy stubble as it involves nocost.

Burning fields also affects the quality of the soil, robbing it of vitalnutrients. The nationalcapital Delhi is the most affected by bad air quality as it lies close toPunjab and Haryana where paddy burning is a common phenomenon.Developingefficient crop fertilization practices have become more and more important due tothe ever increasing global demand for the food production.

Firstly the stubblewaste can be utilized to prepare manure using simple and cheap compost pittechnique and further conversion to slow release fertilizer.  One of the approaches to improve the efficiencyof phosphate and urea fertilizer is by interaction of these fertilizer throughnano composites that are able to control the release of these fertilizer as slowrelease fertilizer (SRF). SRF have the advantage of being more environmentallyfriendly and reduces pollution effects due to overuse of conventionalfertilizer.   Research Objectives·        To develop a biodegradable, cheap andenvironment friendly safe manure/ slow release fertilizers.·        To study effects of pH, temperature,moisture, microorganisms, acidity, soil type, etc. on the releasing rate ofnutrients from the manure/SRF/CRFs.·        To develop the degradable coatingsubstances for the stubble bio wastes to reduce the “tailing” effect and theaccumulation of overuse of fertilizers in the soil.

·        To develop the greener methods forpreparation of manure/ slow release fertilizers.·        To study the effect of manure/ SRFs onplant growth and development. Methodology:Inthe present study, manure/slow release fertilizer will be prepared usingstubble waste and their effect will be studied on the growth and development ofvarious plants. The stubble waste materials will collected from Delhi and neighboringstates.MaterialUsed will beStubblewasteFertilizersUsed:v  Ureav  PotassiumNitratev  AmmoniumPhosphate MethodologyPart –I Preparation of organic manureusing compost pit techniquePart-II: Development of the Bio degradable matrix from the stubble waste andcoated with different fertilizersPart-III: Development of SRFs Composite Based onNanoparticles Encapsulated Bio-wastesPart-IV: To Study the Effect of Synthesized manure/Fertilizers on the Growth and Development of various plants.Projectoutcome§  In view of the growing importance ofvalorization of stubble waste, for the first time the present study will reportthe preparation of manure /slow releasingfertilizers (SRFs) from stubble waste.

For the first timethe present study will reports the synthesis of manure/ SRFs from ureamodified hydroxyapatite as nano fertilizers and their effects were studied onvarious plants. §  The prepared manure / slow releasing fertilizers (SRFs) ­ will be eco-friendly, with low bio-toxicity and improvednutrient utilization efficiency (NUE). Thesynthesis of manure/SRFs from stubble waste will be done using Green Chemistry Protocols.

Themethod designed will be using very simple procedure for synthesis of manure/SRFsat lower temperature and atmospheric pressure, reducing equipment and energycosts.  It will provide a low costproduction alternative in terms of both material and energy.§  Thepresent study would serve as an initiative to make the farmers/ consumers moreaware about environment friendly manure/SRFs. This can bring stricter norms andfertilizer recommendation/ dosage as in the western countries and bring betterproduct in the society. In comparison to conventional fertilizers theprepared manure/SRFs,  in this projectwill help to combat environmental pollution problems.

It is very simple tohandle and can be easily applied in the field. SRFs prepared serve as analternative to commercial fertilizers that are very hazardous to theenvironment.