Smooth cell types, smooth ER play a significant role

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum    Looking for someone who will cater to you needs? Well, look no further!I can perform a diverse amount of significant procedures that nobody else can!  The Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum is an extensive network oftube-like structures found in both animal and plant cells.

The smoothendoplasmic reticulum has two main components; the lumen and the outermembrane. The hollow space inside the smooth ER (called the lumen) is enclosedby the outer membrane which covers the rest of the organelle. The distributionof smooth ER varies on the type of cell and the role it has. Unlike Rough ER,smooth ER do not have ribosomes. The Smooth ER is the nutrient factory of the cell. The tubularstructures are involved in the synthesis of lipids including, cholesterol and phospholipids.Smooth ER carry out the metabolism of carbohydrates. In muscle cells, smooth ERregulate calcium ion concentration via the storage of calcium ions in itscisternae and when muscles need them.

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The smooth ER is also known as apackaging system that lead proteins to other regions of the cell. In certaincell types, smooth ER play a significant role in the synthesis of steroidhormones which contribute to the detoxification of drugs and harmful chemicalsin the body. If I were not present in the cell, then the cell would not be ableto detoxify drugs, alcohol and other harmful substances that may enter thebody. If the smooth endoplasmic reticulum were to stop working, this wouldaffect ability to function properly. When a human consumes alcohol, the smoothER detoxifies the harmful effects of the substance. In addition, the avenue ofsmooth ER would also inhibit affect the transport of necessary materials aroundthe cell.

     Citation: Singh-Cundy, A.(2017). Discover Biology, S.I. : W W Norton   Mitochondria Feeling tired? Suffering from energy deficiency? Does coffee haveno effect on your energy levels? Look no further! Fully charged andrechargeable. Our mitochondria will provide you with the source energy you needto live life to the fullest. I am the powerhouse of the cell.

   Mitochondria (also known asthe powerhouse of the cell) are rod-shaped organelles that create a majority ofthe cell’s energy source in the form of adenosine triphosphate. . Mitochondriahave two main components; an outer and inner membrane composed of phospholipidsand proteins.  The outer membrane is smooth and covers the organelle. Theinner membrane consists of large folds called cristae, which increase thesurface area and enhance the productivity of cellular respiration.

An increasedsurface area creates space for more chemicals reactions to occur, and increasesthe mitochondria’s output. The space between the outer and inner membranes iscalled the intermembrane space, and the region inside the inner membrane iscalled the matrix.   Mitochondria acts almostlike a digestive system which takes glucose and oxygen, breaks it down andcreates energy rich molecules that are utilized by the body. The set ofchemical reactions involved in the production of ATP are collectively known asthe Citric acid cycle or Kreb cycle. If mitochondria is not present, the cell would have no source ofenergy.

 In humans, problems in mitochondria function can causedevastating disorders affecting several regions of the body including liver,heart, kidney, the brain and the skeletal muscles. These regions require asignificant amount of cell energy to function.  Citation: Singh-Cundy, A.(2017). Discover Biology, S.I. : W W Norton    Cell Membrane   Need a personal bodyguard? Someone to protect you from everythingand anything that enters and exits the cell? I work 24/7 to make sure that goodmaterials enter the cell and unwanted materials stay out.

If you need afull-time protector, that’s me! The cell membrane is a thin, flexible, semi-permeable membranethat surrounds the cytoplasm of the cell.  The cell membrane is made up ofa phospholipid bilayer, embedded with proteins and lipids. Within thephospholipid bilayer, the hydrophilic (water-loving) head areas spontaneouslyarrange to face aqueous cytosol and the extracellular fluid, while thehydrophobic (water-fearing) tail areas turn away. This basic structure issemi-permeable to ions and molecules and controls the movement of materials inand out of the cell. Protecting the interior of the cell by allowing certainsubstances to enter, and keeping unwanted substances out. The cell membranealso plays a significant role in stabilizing the cytoskeleton to maintain thecell’s shape as well as attaching to extracellular matrix and other cells tobring cells together to form tissue.

It also regulates cell growth through thebalance of endocytosis (materials enter) and exocytosis (materials exit). Inendocytosis, lipids and proteins are removed from the cell membrane and duringexocytosis, vesicles that contain lipids and proteins fuse with the cellmembrane.  If thecell membrane does not function normally it will allow the abnormal movement ofsubstances in and out of the cell. For example, if the cell membrane allowswater to enter the cell more than what is needed it might cause the bursting ofthe cell or if it allows water exit the cell and leaves only solute within thiswill cause shrinking of the cell. In turn, the cell would die.