RS; is not absorbed in the uppergastrointestinal tract but instead fermented by thecolonic microflora, developing short chain fatty acids that provide more energyto the body as well as butyrate (C?H?O??) a conjugatedbase for butyrate acid. The starch’s can be divided into, SDS (slowlydigestible starch), RDS (rapidly digestible starch) and RS (resistant starch).RDS is digested and absorbed in the duodenum after passing through the stomach rapidly;then moves to the proximal areas of the small intestine, causing a rapid spike inblood glucose and usually resulting in an episode of hypoglycaemia. This spikein blood glucose levels can lead to tissue, cell and organ damage.
Soluble dietary fibre (SDF), includes?glucans, gums, pectin’s mucilage’s and some hemicelluloses. The IDF and SDF compounds, apart from lignin,were known as NSP which was one of the earlier definitions of dietary fibre (DF),essential in animal digestion.Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) areprincipally non-?glucan polysaccharides of the plant cell wall. They are a diversegroup of polysaccharides with varying degrees of water solubility, size, andstructure. Insoluble dietary fibre (IDF), consist of celluloses,some hemicelluloses and lignin. The arrangement of nutritionalcarbohydrates is based on the gradation of polymerization and the type oflinkage; alpha or beta. Carbohydrates are divided into three main groups,sugars, short-chain carbohydrates (oligosaccharides), and polysaccharides.
Theycan be separated into monosaccharides, disaccharides and sugar-alcohols (polyols).Polysaccharides are divided into starch and non-starch groups. Examples of these carbohydrates are;potatoes, fruits, bread. Carbohydrates are formed by the bonding ofH2O and CO2during photosynthesis of plants; they have a ratio of 1 Carbon and one Oxygento every 2 Hydrogens.