RS; is not absorbed in the upper
gastrointestinal tract but instead fermented by the
colonic microflora, developing short chain fatty acids that provide more energy
to the body as well as butyrate (C?H?O??) a conjugated
base for butyrate acid.
The starch’s can be divided into, SDS (slowly
digestible starch), RDS (rapidly digestible starch) and RS (resistant starch).
RDS is digested and absorbed in the duodenum after passing through the stomach rapidly;
then moves to the proximal areas of the small intestine, causing a rapid spike in
blood glucose and usually resulting in an episode of hypoglycaemia. This spike
in blood glucose levels can lead to tissue, cell and organ damage.
Soluble dietary fibre (SDF), includes
?glucans, gums, pectin’s mucilage’s and some hemicelluloses. The IDF and SDF compounds, apart from lignin,
were known as NSP which was one of the earlier definitions of dietary fibre (DF),
essential in animal digestion.
Non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) are
principally non-?glucan polysaccharides of the plant cell wall. They are a diverse
group of polysaccharides with varying degrees of water solubility, size, and
structure. Insoluble dietary fibre (IDF), consist of celluloses,
some hemicelluloses and lignin.
The arrangement of nutritional
carbohydrates is based on the gradation of polymerization and the type of
linkage; alpha or beta. Carbohydrates are divided into three main groups,
sugars, short-chain carbohydrates (oligosaccharides), and polysaccharides. They
can be separated into monosaccharides, disaccharides and sugar-alcohols (polyols).
Polysaccharides are divided into starch and non-starch groups.
Examples of these carbohydrates are;
potatoes, fruits, bread.
Carbohydrates are formed by the bonding of
H2O and CO2
during photosynthesis of plants; they have a ratio of 1 Carbon and one Oxygen
to every 2 Hydrogens.