REVIEW in human beings due to the effect of

REVIEW OF
LITERATURE

 

Nowadays heavy metal
pollution has become the most important problem in our environment. It mainly causes
pollution in natural water bodies. These heavy metals are continuously released
into the water bodies from natural process like volcanic activity and weathering
of rocks. There are lot of industries involved in releasing of heavy metals. The
concentration of the heavy metal has been increased by the release of effluents
from metal processing, ore processing, mining, metal polishing, cleaning, paint
manufacturing and battery manufacturing industries. This heavy metal content in
the environment cause various health issues in animals in the water bodies and
to the human beings.

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          Chromium
is one of the important heavy metals in our environment. Chromium has become
serious health concern due to its carcinogenic and teratogenic characteristics.
Chromium has been released by various industrial and agricultural activities.  Chromium has been mainly exonerated to the
environment by leather tanning, textile, paper & pulp production,
electroplating, petroleum refineries, inorganic chemical production and metal
finishing industries. Chromium also has a wide range of applications in paper
and pulp industries and alloy industries. It is also an essential element in drinking
water for most animals and it also involved in iron metabolism and maintenance
of blood vessels in human beings.

          There
is various health issues has been arise in human beings due to the effect of
chromium in the environment. Various researches depicts that the workers of
various industries had been affected by various health issues like eye
irritation, epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, severe diarrhoea and haemorrhage.
 Some researchers stated that increased
chromium level may also caused increased risk of various cancers like cancer in
digestive tract & lungs, bone prostate cancer, lymphomas, Hodgkin’s, leukaemia,
stomach, genital, renal and bladder cancer.  

          There
are different kinds of treatment methods were used for the removal of heavy
metals like chromium. Common methods like chemical precipitation, coagulation,
adsorption, membrane separation, ferrite treatment system, solvent extraction
and evaporation were used for the removal of chromium in waste water. But there
is a need of alternative methods due to their operational demerits and high
cost. There are diverse technologies were developed and reported by different
researchers by solving these disadvantages in a conventional treatment methods.