Research Methodology1. Nature ofbusiness research1.1 Deductive vs InductiveThere are two types of research approacheswhich can be used to conduct the research, it can be a deduction approach ordeduction approach (Bryman & Bell, 2011). In induction approach theresearch develop a new theory from the empirical investigation. In inductiveprocess, researchers find a research problem that should be explored after thatthey do the observation and from the empirical data they gathered themselvesdraw the conclusion regarding the research problem. In contrast of theinduction approach, in deductive research researchers developed the hypotheseso the bases of existing theories and then develop a strategy to test thehypothesis.
In this study, deductive research approachhas been used because the researcher has developed the hypothesis on the basesof the exiting theories. All the factors are tested in the new context which isin the luxury industry more specifically in clothing and cosmetics products. 1.2 Quantitative vs qualitativeDeductive approach and inductive approach bothare related either to qualitative or qualitative studies. Inductive research isnormally related to the qualitative study because qualitative study is not asformal, controlled and structured (Bryman & Bell, 2011).
Deductive approachis suitable for the quantitative study because the theories are already developedbut the new hypothesis shall be tested. In quantitative research methodgeneralizability of the results are more emphasized than the qualitativeresearch method. Qualitative research method is used with the aim to collectthe data that is calculable and measurable (Ghauri & Gronhaug, 2005).
Quantitative method is mostly used when the researchers want to examine theimpact between the variables, describe the relationship among the variables andto examine the cause and effect relationship between the variables. The purposeof qualitative research is to collect the data that is interpretable. Thequalitative research method is suitable when the researcher wants to exploresomething and wants to get the in-depth understanding about the phenomena. Inthis study, the quantitative research method has been used to find the resultsof the problem.ResearchdesignPurposeof the studyThe main purpose of this study is toexamine the effect of website quality on the consumer online purchase intentionwith moderating role consumer perceived risk in cosmetics and clothing productsNatureof studyThere are three most common form of theresearch studies that are related to the marketing.· Exploratoryresearch· Explanatoryresearch· DescriptiveresearchIf the research problem is not clearly defined andonly a little research has been conducted on this topic then an exploratoryresearch is suitable for this study (Ghauri & Gronhaug, 2005; Bryman &Bell, 2011). In most cases this form of research study is used in qualitativestudies (Ghauri & Gronhaugh, 2005; Bryman & Bell, 2011, Hair et al.
,2011). If the purpose of the research is clearly defined and to the point thendescriptive research is suitable for this study (Hair et al., 2011).
Descriptive research can be used either in qualitative study and quantitative study.If the purpose of the research is to examine the cause and effect relationshipsamong the variables than the explanatory research will be suitable for thisstudy. The explanatory research is also known as causal research.
The problemwhich are mostly discussed in this study is how the variables are related to eachother’s.In this study, we want to examine cause and effectrelationships between the website quality and consumer online purchaseintention and want to see the effect of consumer perceived risk on therelationship of website quality and consumer online purchase intention. Theexplanatory research is more suitable for this study because this form ofresearch study provides us the opportunity to examine how these variables arerelated and to explain if these variables are related.
So, the study isexplanatory in nature. The study is cross sectional studies because the data iscollected from the targeted sample that is derived from the target populationat the given time (Hair et al., 2011).Data sourcesDatacan be collected from two ways, either from primary source or a secondarysource. In primary source data is gathered by the researcher himself from theparticipants for the specific purposes.
Primary sources of data are interview,survey, experimental and focus group etc. The main difference between theprimary and secondary source of data is that primary data is unique andoriginal because it is directly collected from the participants from a specificsource according to the requirement of his research problem. In secondarysource, data is gathered by the other person than the researcher himself. Somecommon sources of secondary data are the published articles, magazines,documentaries and newspaper etc.
Both sources have some advantages anddisadvantages. Primary sources of data are considered very expensive and timeconsuming than the secondary sources of data. The advantage of secondary sourcesof data is that it is very easiest and cheapest sources of data.
Inthis study, the primary source is used to collect the data because the primarysources of data enabled the researcher to gather the relevant information to getthe answer of the research problem.Data collection methodThereare many different types of instruments that a researcher can used forcollection of the data but it depends on whether it is qualitative study or aquantitative study (Bryman & Bell, 2011). As this study is a quantitativestudy therefore all the instruments of qualitative data collection have beenexcluded from the study. In quantitative study data is collected throughquestionnaire, experiment and structured observations.Whenthe data is collected by the experimental method the participants that involvedin this experimental they are observed within the highly controlledcircumstances. This method of data collection is very time consuming and verydifficult for the researcher to control the stetting where the study is beingperformed. Astructured observation is another quantitative data collection method. In thisdata collection method, the researchers observe the specific phenomena in itsnatural setting.
This method systematically observing the behavior of theindividuals. The researchers observe the behavior of the individually when theyare unaware of it so it allows the researchers that they can observed theirbehavior directly. In quantitative research, surveys are used to collect the data. Surveys canbe done in the form of questionnaire or structured interview.
Questionnaire isconsidered very effective and easiest method of data collection for theresearcher because it consumes the less time as compared to another method. Inthis study questionnaire is used to collect the data because by using thismethod a lot information can be gained from a very little amount of time. Data collection technique Questionnaire 2. Populationand Sample sizeWhen a researchdecides to collect the primary data hemust define the target population Theresearcher can gather the data from the selected sample by using probabilitysampling or non-probability sampling. A sampling technique in which all therespondents have the equal chance to represent the target population is calleda probability sampling and a sampling technique in which each respondent hasnot an equal chance to be selected rather the participants are selected based ontheir availability to the researcher. In this study, non-probability sampling techniqueis used to select the participants.
Convenience sampling, purposive samplingand quota sampling are three most common types of non-probability samplingtechnique. Convenience sampling involves selecting the sample on the bases of thepeople who are readily available. In this study, data is collected by using theconvenience sampling method of non-probability sampling technique. The target sampleof this study is only student of LCWU, PU, GCU and UET whohave an experience to visit the any cosmetics and clothing website for onlineshopping. 3.
Dataanalysis method and techniquesThe datawhich is gathered from the questionnaire is analyzed in data program SPSS.Several steps are involved in the data analyses methods like coding the data,enter the data, reliability test, validity test, multiple regression analysisand testing of hypothesis.