Research the chemical equation below: https://www.emaze.com/@AFRRFLOC/Cellular-Respiration After fermentation, the

Research question:
How are the concentrations of sugar affect the amount of alcohol produced after
fermentation of yeast?

Background
information:

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Anaerobic respiration in yeast is known as fermentation. Yeast
is a fungal microorganism that remains a common component of modern wine and
bread manufacture. Fermentation is the scientific process that yeast metabolizes
sugars and releases alcohol  and carbon dioxide.  Yeast contains enzymes that catalyze the
breakdown of glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide.

 

Fruits can also use to made alcohol (ethanol) instead of pure
glucose when the incomplete level of oxygen occurs. Alcohol can be made from
any fruits that contend starch or sugar. In this experiment we will be using
pineapple juice as sugar for fermentation. 
Pineapple contains sucrose, glucose and fructose, which
can undergo fermentation. Also pineapple is really easy to extract its juice
since it really juicy, therefore, it doesn’t need to add water when blending it
that make the concentration of pineapple juice more concentrated.

 

Cell respiration involves the production of ATP using energy
released by the oxidation of glucose and the first stage of cell respiration
for glucose as a substance is a metabolic path way called glycolysis. Glucose
is partially oxidized in the pathway and a small amount of ATP is produced. The
glycolysis process can be achieved without using oxygen therefore the
glycolysis can form part of both aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Glycolysis
converts one glucose into two pyruvates. Two ATP molecules are used per glucose
and four are produced so there is a net yield of two ATP molecules. This is a
small yield of ATP per glucose, but it can be achieved without the use of any
oxygen, which is anaerobic respiration. Two NADs are also converted into two
reduced NADs. The pyruvates form glycolysis can be ferment to form ethanol and
carbon dioxide and this process occur without using oxygen. As shown in the
chemical equation below:

https://www.emaze.com/@AFRRFLOC/Cellular-Respiration

 

 

 

 

After fermentation, the solution will contain excess yeast
and won’t be a pure ethanol; therefore, extraction will be required by the
process call distillation. Distillation is the method that separates liquid
from a mixture of liquid by using the different boiling point of the liquid.
Liquids have a different boiling points therefore they vaporize at different
temperature. Distillation is commonly used to separate ethanol that has boiling
point at 78.
A small change of the temperature can affect the product that produced. Then
the alcohol produced can be measure by using hydrometer. Hydrometer uses to
measure a characteristic of liquid such as the specific
gravity (weight per unit volume compared with water). In this
experiment the data collected need to be calibrate to percentage by using ,
start gravity is the pineapple juice before ferment and final gravity is
pineapple juice after ferment and distilled to get a ethanol.

Independent variable:
Concentration of pineapple juice (100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, 20%)

Dependent variable:
The amount of alcohol that produced (in %)

Controlled variables:

Controlled variables

Importance

Control methods

Amount of yeast

Yeast
has an enzyme called zymase and this catalyses the fermentation process. The
more amount of yeast the faster reaction, which might impact the amount of
alcohol, produce in specific time.

Using
electronic balance to measure the amount of 5 grams of yeast because
electronic balance is really accurate, therefore, amount of yeast added will
be likely the same.

Amount of pineapple
juice

The
amount of pineapple juice is mean the amount of sugar, which effect the
amount of ethanol produced. Yeast consumes sugar to release ethanol and
carbon dioxide therefore the more sugar the more ethanol produced.

Use
the same amount of pineapple juice in every concentration to keep the independent
variable as a concentration of pineapple juice.

Pineapple

Different
pineapple might give different amount of sugar. Some pineapple can be sweeter
than another.

Use
pineapple juice from the same pineapples in every trials and concentrations.

Amount of
fermentation time

The
longer the fermentation the higher amount of ethanol produced.

After
3 days of fermentation, all fermented pineapple juice need to be distil
within the same day otherwise the experiment result will not be accurate

Temperature

The
temperature has an affect on rate of reaction and amount of ethanol produced.
The high the temperature the faster the rate as well as the amount of ethanol
produces.

During
the fermentation store all the solution in the same place at room
temperature.

During
distillation is really important to keep constant. The change in temperature
can affects the product of distillation because all liquids have their own
boiling point and the increase and decrease in temperature might vaporize the
liquid that we don’t want.

It
really hard to keep the temperature constant throughout the experiment,
therefore, keep the temperature in the range of 77-82  which is close to 78 of ethanol boiling point but does not reach
others liquids boiling points.

 

Hypothesis:

The more concentrated pineapple juice, the more sugar
contained. In the higher concentrated solution, the amount of ethanol will
produced more due to the higher rate of fermentation of yeast.

Apparatus:
(Uncertainty)

1.    
2 pineapples

2.    
Knife and chopping board

3.    
Blender

4.    
Filtered

5.    
300 mL Beagers

6.    
1000 mL Beager

7.    
Yeast power

8.    
100 mL measuring cylinder

9.    
Electronic balance

10. Stirring
rod

11. Hydrometer

12. Parafilm

13. Ice
bath

14. Thermometer

15. Distilled
water

16. Stirring
rod

17. Distillation
tools

Method:

1.    
Peal and cut pineapple into small pieces

2.    
Put all the pineapple in the blender and blend
it until the pineapple become puree then put it in the filtered to percolate
the pineapple garbage and store the pineapple juice in 1000 mL beager. Make
sure that the pineapple juice doesn’t have anything in it.

3.    
Dilute the pineapple juice into 5 concentrations
by adding the distilled water using the measuring cylinder to measure and mix
it together in amount that shown in a table below:

Concentrations

Pineapple juice (mL)

Distilled water (mL)

100%

600

0

80%

480

120

60%

360

240

40%

240

360

20%

120

480

*mix the pineapplr juice and distilled water in 300 mL
beager.

4.    
Take a sample of pineapple juice in each
concentration before add the yeast, place the hydrometer and record the
starting gravity.

5.    
Use measuring cylinder to measure 200 mL of
pineapple juice for 5 concentrations using 100 mL measuring cylinder and pour
in the 5 different 300 mL beagers.

6.    
Weigh 5 grams of yeast power using electronic
balance with electronic balance and pour 5 grams of yeast in each beagers for
each concentration and make sure that the yeast power goes in at the same time.

7.    
Mix the yeast and pineapple juice with the
stirring rod until the solution completely mixed.

8.    
Cover the beagers with parafilm to prevent other
substances to fall in and make a small hole on the film for the gas produced
(carbon dioxide gas) to move out and prevent the burst of high pressure gas

9.    
Keep the beagers close for 3 days to let the
fermentation begins

10. After
3 days, stir the solution and pour the solution in the distillation flask. Make
sure that the solution doesn’t go over two thirds of the flask to prevent the
solution that might propel into the condenser, compromising the purity of the
distillate.

11.

Place the flask in the thermowell
heat source and set up the distillation as the diagram below:

 

12. Set
the temperature and keep in constant at 77-82  (ethanol boils at 78 )

13.  When the product of distillation reaches 100
mL in receiving flask remove the heat source.

14. Repeat the process of distillation for all
concentrations and all concentrations in the same trial need to distil in the
same day.

15. Repeat
steps 4-13 for trial 2 and trial 3.

16.  Place all the distilled solutions in the ice
bath and wait until the temperature lower and reach 15 (temperature that hydrometer work best)

17.

https://contrastique.wordpress.com/tag/hydrometer/

 

Place the hydrometer in each solution and record the final
gravity.

18.  All the solutions, chemical, and waste from
the lab can pour it in the sink since it’s not toxic and won’t have any effect
to the environment.

Observation:

Data:

Concentration of
pineapple juice
(%)

Starting gravity

Final gravity

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

 

20

1.011

1.003

1.002

1.004

 

40

1.014

1.000

1.001

1.002

 

60

1.017

0.998

0.999

1.000

 

80

1.019

0.997

0.997

0.998

 

100

1.021

0.995

0.996

0.996

 

 

 

Calculation the percentage of ethanol using equation:

=
1.031%

Uncertainty:

Uncertainty of starting gravity =

Uncertainty of final gravity =

Total uncertainty = 0.001 +0.001

Concentration of
pineapple juice
(%)

% Of ethanol

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

20

1.031

1.160

0.902

40

1.804

1.675

1.546

60

2.448

2.320

2.191

80

2.835

2.835

2.706

100

3.351

3.222

3.222

 

Calculate the average of % of
ethanol:

 

Concentration of
pineapple juice (%)

% Of ethanol

20

1.031

40

1.675

60

2.320

80

2.792

100

3.265