RESEARCH NEWSex Differences in Intelligence Areas and Response TimeTasks, is a research paper by Natalie Bennett, conducted in 2011, where certainResponse Time Tasks with various levels of complexity were conducted and theparticipants’ performance was recorded. Thirty five students participated inthe same. In the first part of the study, in order to obtain IQestimates, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IV (WAIS-IV) was administered.In research previously conducted, results showed that females outperformedmales in verbal ability and perceptual speed WAIS-IV subtests and the same washypothesized for this research. In the second part of the study, participants were requiredto complete four response time (RT) tasks, each of a different level ofcomplexity. The author, upon reviewing past literature and from previousobservations, reached two hypotheses- the first one: the males undertaking thetests would outperform the female participants on the signal detection task(which is the simplest of the four RT tasks); and the second: the females wouldbe able to outperform the male participants on the lexicon decision task(reliant on verbal ability)The study results help the authors conclude that males didindeed have faster RTs than females in the signal detection task. Furthermore,it was also concluded that male and female RTs on this signal detection taskcorrelated differently with the subtests of the WAIS-IV. However, there were nosex differences found on any of the other three RT tasks.
Furthermore, no sexdifferences were found on any subtests of the WAIS-IV. Thus, these findings highlight the fact thatalthough sexdifferences not mandatorilybe obvious in intelligence or RT performance, it can be inferred that males andfemales may use different resources to complete the same taskRESEARCH OLDA fairly common notion prominent in today’s academic circlesis that there exists no (or minimal) sex differences in the characteristic ofintelligence. However, this view iscontradicted by Lynn (1994, 1999) in his Developmental Theory of SexDifferences in Intelligence. The theory states that maturity levels of boys andgirls are inherently different; the growth of girls accelerates from the age of9, staying ahead of boys until about 14-15 years.
However, from this age, thegrowth of girls slows down as compared to boys. As boys continue to grow fromthis age their height and their mean IQs increase relative to those of girls.The paper collects new data from the Spanish standardization sample of thefifth edition of the DAT. A total of 1027 boys and 924 girls from ages 12-18years were tested. The theory was supported as it was found that younger girlsperform better than boys and this difference in performance decrease with age.
There is a 4.3 IQ advantage for the 18 year old boys in the DAT as a whole,which is very close (4.4 IQ points) to the benefit that can be expected fromtheir larger brain size. The similarity within the sex difference s inabilities between the Spanish sample and that in the United States and Britainis testimony to the robustness of the difference in these different cultures. both claimed the same. The view that women are intellectuallyinferior came from early researches that used volume and size of the brain asfactors of intelligence. Once it was found to not be a factor the view slowlyshifted.
In 1916, Lewis Terman concluded that “theintelligence of girls, at least up to 14 years, does not differ materially fromthat of boys”. A number of studies have been conducted andhave brought about mixed results.Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understandcomplex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn fromexperience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles bytaking thought. It has been long debated whether or not intelligence differsbetween the sexes. Numbers of researches have shown that ‘g’ or general intelligenceremains the same between the two sexes. These studies are extremely importantand relevant to psychologists because if there exists differences in intelligencebetween the sexes, they can be applied in various aspects and help simplify andfactorize and segregate daily activities such as driving, athletics, drivingetc. according to their sexes.
The argument of whether or not there is anadvantage for men when it comes to intelligence still remains, despite of thefindings of these researches.Right up to the early 20th centuryit was widely held view that men had greater intellect than women. Herbert Spencerand Sigmund Freud