Reducing MDG 4 target. (UNIGCME, 2015) Since then, the

child mortality is paramount important for child health and all well-being as
it is threatening social, economic and other sectors of both developed and
developing countries in the world. By this reasons, in 2000, world leaders
agreed and set the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and called for reducing
the under-five mortality rate by two thirds between 1990 and 2015 which is
known as the MDG 4 target. (UNIGCME, 2015)

Since then, the indicators for early childhood
mortality are core indicators of all countries around the world. The common
indicators which describe the childhood mortality are in respect to neonatal
mortality rate, infant mortality rate, child mortality rate, under-five
mortality rate and perinatal mortality rate. Respectively, neonatal mortality
rate is the probability of dying within the first month of life, and infant
mortality rate is the probability of dying within first year of life while under-five
mortality means the child deaths between birth and fifth birthday. Some
statisticians use child mortality which represent the mortality of children
between one and 5 year of age. The terminology of perinatal mortality is the
total number of still births and neonatal deaths within the first seven days of
live. These mortality rates are usually computed and expressed based on
thousand live births. (MDHS, 2015-2016)

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Mortality from MDG to SDG Era

One of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) is
regarding child mortality. It is mentioned at MDG4 which target is to reduce
the under-five mortality rate by two third (75%) within 25 years from 1990 to
2015.  Although global under-five
mortality rate significantly reduced from 91 deaths per 1000 live births in
1990 to 43 deaths per 1000 live births in 2015. The rate is only about half (53%
drop in compared to the target to reduce 75%) from 1990 which means MDG4 target
has not yet achieved in 2015. (UNIGCME, 2015)  

However, 62 out of 195 countries are found meeting the
MDG4 targets since 2000. In those countries, 12 low-income countries and another 12 lower-middle
income countries are involved.  On the
other hand, 133 out of 195 countries cannot achieve as targeted in MDG4. Among
them, 74 countries could reduce at least half of their child mortality as well
as 41 countries could make at least 30% reduction of child mortality. In
general, under-five mortality rate is remarkably fell around the world except some
regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Asia, and Oceania. (UNIGCME,

Sub-Saharan Africa flagged as the highest rate of under-5
mortality around the world in 2015 though the annual under-5 mortality rate
reduction rate could show some degree of improvement between 1990 and 2015.
Under-5 mortality rate of 7 countries in this region is over 100 per 1000 live
births. At the same time, its rate in Southern Asia is still high, 51 deaths per
1000 live births. Therefore, it shows the need to continue accelerating and
contributing effort to reduce the rate of under-five mortality after post-3MDG
era. (UNIGCME, 2015)

In the stage of ending of 3MDG era, the Sustainable
Development Goals (SDGs) were set and agreed by all nations. In September 2015,
the United Nations Secretary General launched the new global health strategy
including one SDG aiming to end the preventable deaths of newborn and children
under five years of age by 2030. As per SDG, all countries committed to reduce
children under-5 deaths to 25 deaths per 1000 or lower and neonatal deaths to
12 deaths per 1000 or lower. In order to achieve the target of SDG, not only
developing countries but also developed countries have to gear up to accelerate
the efforts in reduction of child mortality happened in really so as to achieve
the goal by 2030.