Reducingchild mortality is paramount important for child health and all well-being asit is threatening social, economic and other sectors of both developed anddeveloping countries in the world. By this reasons, in 2000, world leadersagreed and set the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and called for reducingthe under-five mortality rate by two thirds between 1990 and 2015 which isknown as the MDG 4 target. (UNIGCME, 2015) Since then, the indicators for early childhoodmortality are core indicators of all countries around the world. The commonindicators which describe the childhood mortality are in respect to neonatalmortality rate, infant mortality rate, child mortality rate, under-fivemortality rate and perinatal mortality rate.
Respectively, neonatal mortalityrate is the probability of dying within the first month of life, and infantmortality rate is the probability of dying within first year of life while under-fivemortality means the child deaths between birth and fifth birthday. Somestatisticians use child mortality which represent the mortality of childrenbetween one and 5 year of age. The terminology of perinatal mortality is thetotal number of still births and neonatal deaths within the first seven days oflive. These mortality rates are usually computed and expressed based onthousand live births. (MDHS, 2015-2016) ChildMortality from MDG to SDG EraOne of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) isregarding child mortality.
It is mentioned at MDG4 which target is to reducethe under-five mortality rate by two third (75%) within 25 years from 1990 to2015. Although global under-fivemortality rate significantly reduced from 91 deaths per 1000 live births in1990 to 43 deaths per 1000 live births in 2015. The rate is only about half (53%drop in compared to the target to reduce 75%) from 1990 which means MDG4 targethas not yet achieved in 2015. (UNIGCME, 2015) However, 62 out of 195 countries are found meeting theMDG4 targets since 2000. In those countries, 12 low-income countries and another 12 lower-middleincome countries are involved. On theother hand, 133 out of 195 countries cannot achieve as targeted in MDG4. Amongthem, 74 countries could reduce at least half of their child mortality as wellas 41 countries could make at least 30% reduction of child mortality.
Ingeneral, under-five mortality rate is remarkably fell around the world except someregions such as Sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Asia, and Oceania. (UNIGCME,2015)Sub-Saharan Africa flagged as the highest rate of under-5mortality around the world in 2015 though the annual under-5 mortality ratereduction rate could show some degree of improvement between 1990 and 2015.Under-5 mortality rate of 7 countries in this region is over 100 per 1000 livebirths. At the same time, its rate in Southern Asia is still high, 51 deaths per1000 live births. Therefore, it shows the need to continue accelerating andcontributing effort to reduce the rate of under-five mortality after post-3MDGera. (UNIGCME, 2015)In the stage of ending of 3MDG era, the SustainableDevelopment Goals (SDGs) were set and agreed by all nations. In September 2015,the United Nations Secretary General launched the new global health strategyincluding one SDG aiming to end the preventable deaths of newborn and childrenunder five years of age by 2030. As per SDG, all countries committed to reducechildren under-5 deaths to 25 deaths per 1000 or lower and neonatal deaths to12 deaths per 1000 or lower.
In order to achieve the target of SDG, not onlydeveloping countries but also developed countries have to gear up to acceleratethe efforts in reduction of child mortality happened in really so as to achievethe goal by 2030.