RaniWulanti RiniNPM: 114060188 The Proposal ofUndergraduate ThesisDescriptive Analysis of English and Indonesian PersonalPronoun on the Jakarta Post and Kompas.com Articles Chapter IINTRODUCTIONA. BackgroundMass media refers to communication deviceswhich can be used to communicate and interact which reachs and influences largenumber of people and we can find it every day with a number of news, hot issueand information there. However, the information cannot be separated frompeople’s daily life nowadays, because humans are open minded, knowledgeable,mentally active, creative and curious independent thinkers. They have theamazing ability to ask who, what, why, where, when and how, hence mass mediahas become a primary need for people to get the information about our big worldas well as in political like in society.
It plays a crucial role in increasingpublic viewpoint. (Quail,2005: 3) argue that mass media is a power source, control device, management,and innovation in the society that can be used as lieu of force or anotherresources. In one hand It has a function to serve an information about currentissue or people and the world condition but in the other hand some mediamessages reinforce an existing belief.
There are three kind of mass mediatoday. Those are print media such as: newspapers, magazines, booklets,brochures, billboards. Electronic media such as: television, radio. New agemedia such as: mobile phones, computers, internet, electronic books.
Thepopular one is newspaper because it is an up to date publication which isissued daily or weekly and includes local and international news. A newspapercarries all kinds of communication related to a variety of topics likeeconomics, politics, current affairs, entertainment, fianance, etc. Then, withthe advent of digital technologies, electronic newspapers are being produced. Newspapers isprinted media that provide information about daily events.
Hera (2012) statesthat newspapers become one of the mass media that can make the interactionindirectly between the source of information and the recipient. In addition toproviding information, both from within the country and from various parts ofthe world, newspapers are also entertaining, this is what makes the newspaperplays an important role in daily life. Lots of newspapers published by variouspublishers.
Among them are The Jakarta Post and Kompas.com.The Jakarta Post isan English-language daily newspaper in Indonesia that presents articles onvarious national information, education, business, politics, internationalinformation, etc. While Kompas.com is an Indonesian-language daily newspaperthat presents articles on various information in the country and abroad aboutpolitics, economics, technology, automotive, sports and so forth. Article is a complete factual essay created for publication throughnewspapers, magazines, blogs, websites, etc. that aims to convey ideas andfacts that can be convincing, educational and entertaining.
The article itselfhas some benefits for the readers, such as can add insight and knowledge, as afiller of leisure, entertainment and articles also can be used as a referencesource for task. In anarticle, many authors used pronouns to replace certain words for the presented thatarticle more interesting. Aknis (2017) states that pronoun is a part of speechthat replaces a noun in a sentence. Pronoun function is as a noun replacementword so that in a sentence or paragraph not many repetitions occur the samenoun word. It is appropriate with the statement from an expert Jhon E.
Warriner, (1973: 34) pronoun is a word used in place of noun. It may stand fora person, place, thing, or idea. There aredifferences between English and Indonesian personal pronoun. Based on theexplanation above, the researcher was interested to analyze and compare theIndonesian and English personal pronoun contained in the sentences of TheJakarta Post and Kompas.com newspapers articles in a study entitled”Descriptive analysis of English and Indonesian Personal Pronoun on TheJakarta Post and Kompas.
com articles”. This research used qualitativemethod in analyzing data of research. B. ResearchQuestion Basedon the background of study above, the problem statements can be formulated asfollows:1. Whatare the differences and the similarities between Indonesian and English personalpronouns in “Trump’s Indonesian Partner to Back Jokowi’s 2019 Re-election”in The Jakarta Post and “Maju Sebagai Cagub Jabar dari PDI-P, TB HasanudinMinta Restu Paguyuban Pasundan” In Kompas.com newspaper?2.
What is the function of personal pronouns found in “Trump’s Indonesian partner to back Jokowi’s 2019re-election” in The Jakarta Post and “Maju Sebagai Cagub Jabar dari PDI-P, TB HasanudinMinta Restu Paguyuban Pasundan” In Kompas.com newspaper? C. Objectives of the StudyInrelation of the problem above, the objectives of the study are:1. Tofind out the differences and the similaritiesbetween Indonesian and Englishpersonalpronouns in “Trump’s Indonesian partner to back Jokowi’s 2019re-election” in The Jakarta Post and “Maju Sebagai Cagub Jabar dari PDI-P, TB Hasanudin Minta RestuPaguyuban Pasundan” In Kompas.com newspaper.2. To find out the functions of personal pronouns found in “Trump’s Indonesian partner to back Jokowi’s 2019re-election” in The Jakarta Post and “Maju Sebagai Cagub Jabar dari PDI-P, TB Hasanudin Minta RestuPaguyuban Pasundan” In Kompas.com newspaper.
D. Limitationof the StudyIn line withthe research question of the problems above, this study focuses on analysisabout personal pronouns which is taken from sentence on which contained inpolitical news articles of The Jakarta Post and Kompas.com “Trump’sIndonesian partner to back Jokowi’s 2019 re-election” in The Jakarta Postnewspaper, edition Wednesday November 29, 2017 and “Maju Sebagai Cagub Jabar dari PDI-P, TB HasanudinMinta Restu Paguyuban Pasundan” In Kompas.com newspapaer, edition MondayJanuary 09, 2018.
E. Significaceof the StudyThe researcher hopes that her researchon the personal pronounin The Jakarta Post andKompas.com articles has some benefits. Those are:1. for researcher / teacher.
a. The researcher / teacher are able to know the differencesand the similarities between Indonesian and English personalpronouns in the article. b. The researcher / teacher are able to improve theability in writing English by comparing the two languages (English andIndonesian personal pronouns).2. for students.
a. Thestudents are able to know about personal pronouns ofthe articlein newspaper, especially in The Jakarta Post and Kompas.com.b.
The students are able to know aboutabout personal pronouns that will assist students in studying grammar. Chapter IITHEORETICAL REVIEW A. Definitions1.
Definitionof Pronouns Aknis(2017) states that pronoun is a part of speech that replaces a noun in asentence. Pronoun function is as a noun replacement word so that in a sentenceor paragraph not many repetitions occur in the same word. It is appropriatewith the statement from an expert Haryono and Andrew (2008:61) cited in Hera(2012), the function is that each sentence or paragraph is not occur repeat thesame word.Example:”Diana is a pretty girl. She is kind. I like her”. Inthis example words she and her said pronouns because substitute noun Diana.
In Englishlinguistic study, pronoun is divided into several types, including personalpronouns. 2. Definition of Personal PronounsAccording toHaryono and Andrew (2008:61) cited in Hera (2012) states that Personal Pronounsis a pronoun used to replace the first person, second and third person.
Thistype of pronoun may change according to its role (whether as subject, object,possessive or reflexive), may change according to number of persons (singularand plural), persons to (first, second or third), and gender (female, male orneutral).Example: Ilove my familyYou are my beloved friendHe is my brotherShe is beautiful We go to traditional marketevery weekThey read the book in thelibraryIt is my cat2.1 The Functions of Personal Pronouns.
Differentwith noun, pronoun can serve as:1. Subjectmeans the person doing.Example: Theyread. Shesleeps. Hego. 2.
Object means Target or target of the subject.Example: Jameskilled her Donacalled him 3. Object of Preposition means pronoun which placed afterthe preposition. Example: Shewas surrounded by them 4. Complement means pronouns can also function as acomplement.Example: Rudi is myfather Laila is my sister B.
Englishand Indonesian Personal Pronoun1. English Personal PronounPersonalpronouns are used as substitutes for nouns. They can be spoken in the first,second or third person.1. FirstPerson or The Speakermeans the subject of the sentence is the person speaking.Singular: I(written with a capital letter) Example:I want to sleep (I refer the speaker only) Plural:we (includes the speaker and the hearer) Example:we go to traditional market every week (we includes the speaker/writer). 1.
Second Person or the Person Speaker to meansthe subject of the sentence is the person or people being spoken to.Singular:you Example:You are very excited about your holiday Plural:you Example:you all got a lot of presents 2. ThirdPerson or the Person or Thing being spoken of meansthe subject of the sentence is the person, people or things being spoken about.Singular: – he (masculin) Example: he smiles to me- she (feminime) Example:she is very friendly- it (for other person) Example: a rabbit run over to me.
It is socute.Plural: – they Example:they go to my house this noonPersonalpronouns may change according to its role (whether as subject, object,possessive or reflexive), may change according to number of persons (singularand plural), persons to (first, second or third), and gender (female, male orneutral).1. Personalpronoun as a subjectExample: I am a teacher Youare a pilot We are best friend 2. Personalpronoun as an object.The object canbe an object that is a verb or prepositionExample: I love her Youare faster than me 3. Personal pronoun as a possessive to explainownership.Example: Hisdaughter go to Canada This is yours 4.
Personalpronoun as a reflexive.Example: I bought a new dress for myself.She laughed at herself Table of Personal Pronoun Classification Numbers of Person Person to- Case Subject Object Possessive Reflexive Singular 1st I Me Mine Myself 2nd You You Yours Yourself 3rd He, She, It Him, Her, It His, Hers, Its Himself, Herself, Itself Plural 1st We Us Our, Ours Ourselves 2nd You You Yours Yourselves 3rd They Them Their, Theirs Themselves 2. Indonesian Personal Pronoun (Pronomina Persona)Agnes (2014)states that pronomina persona is a pronoun that shows the category of personasaya, ia, mereka. Widjono (2007) as cited in Agnes (2014) states that Pronominapersona is a pronoun which refers to a person, consisting of the first personsingular: saya, aku, daku, -ku and plural: kami, second person singular: engkau,kamu, anda, dikau, kau, -mu, and plural: refer to people. The pronomina personamay refer to the self (first pronomina persona), referring to the person kalian,kamu sekalian, anda sekalian, and the third persona ia, dia, beliau, -nya andthe plural: mereka. In Standard Indonesian Grammar (Alwi, et al.
2010) explainedthat pronomina persona is a pronoun which is used to be spoken (second pronominapersona), or referring to the person in question (third pronomina persona).Among the pronouns, some refer to the sum of one or more than one. There areexclusive forms, some are inclusive, and some are neutral. The pronouns ofpersona can be seen in the following table: Tabel of Pronomina Persona Persona Meaning Sigular Plural Neutral Exclusive Inclusive First saya, aku, daku, ku-,-ku kami kita Second engkau, kamu, anda, dikau, kau ,-mu kalian, kamu, sekalian, anda sekalian Third ia, dia, beliau,nya mereka According to Alwi (2010: 256) Pronomina persona dividedinto three types, there are:1.
FirstPersona a. Firstpersona in singular form (Saya, Aku, and Daku)1. Sayais a formal form generally usedin writing or speech that is official.2. Aku morewidely used in daily conversations with informal situations, this first personasignifies the intimacy of the speaker / writer with the listener / reader. Thisform is also often found in stories and poetry.3.
Dakuis often used in literaryworks. b. Firstpersona in plural form (Kami and Kita)1. Kamiis a first persona in pluralform referring to the speaker / writer and the other person beside her/him, butexcluding the listener / readerExample: Kami akan pergi ke pasar tradisional bersama-sama.(We will go to the traditionalmarket together) 2.
Kitais a first persona in pluralform that refers to the speaker / writer including other person who acts as alistener / reader.Example: Kita akan pergi ke pasar tradisional bersama-sama.(We will go to the traditionalmarket together) 2.
SecondPersona a. Secondpersona in singular form (engkau, kamu, anda, dikau, kau- dan -mu) 1. Engkau,kau, kamu dan –mu used by: a. Parentsagainst younger people who is well known.Example: Kapan kamu pergi bekerja? (When will you go to work?) Apakah kamu sudahmakan, nak? (Have you eaten,son?) b. Peoplewho have higher social status.Example: Apakah kamu sudah menyusun jadwal rapat besok,Diana? (Haveyou arranged the meeting schedule for tomorrow, Diana?) Mengapatadi engkau tidak ikut rapat? (Whydidn’t you come to the meeting?) Mengapatadi kau tidak ikut rapat? (Whydidn’t you come to the meeting?) c. Peoplewho have a very close relationship regardless of age and social status.
Example: Kapan bajumu akan kamu cuci? (When will yourclothes be washed?) Hidungmu berdarah, apakah kamu baik-baiksaja? (Your nose isbleeding, are you O.K? 2. Andais a second persona used toneutralize relationships, but the use of this pronoun is still limited by thestructure and socio-cultural values. This pronoun are used when: a. Speaker/ writer and listener / reader are in an un-private relationship so yourpronoun usage does not lead specifically to one person Example: Sebelumkita melakukan perjalanan wisata ini, silahkan periksa kembali barang bawaan Anda.(Before westart this tour, please check your luggage) Pakailahlipstik ini, Anda akan terlihatcantik.
(Use thislipstick, you’ll look beautiful. b. Speaker/ writer and listener / reader in the relationship is prominent, but Speaker /writer does not want to appear too formal or too familiar.Example: Apa yang sedang Anda lakukan di sini?(What are youdoing here?) ApakahAnda tinggal di sini?(Do you live here?)3. Dikaumore often found in literatureas well as daku. However, pronoun dikau is currently rarely used.Example: Hanya dikau yang aku rindu.
(Just you whoI miss.) Dikaulah segalanya bagiku. You’re everything for me. b.
Secondpersona in plural form 1. Kalian isa pronoun which is not bound to social status, but the use of this pronoun isnot appropriate if used by young people or who have lower social status toparents or people who have higher social status.Example: Kemana kalian akan pergi berlibur? (Where will you go onholiday?) 2.
Personakedua ditambahkan kata sekalianExample: Kamusekalian harus mengikuti aturan kantor. (You must obey theoffice rules.) Keputusanini ada ditangan Anda sekalian.
(This decision isdepend on you all.) 3. ThirdPersona a.
Thirdpersona in singular form (ia, dia, and –nya)Ia and dia havethe same function and can be used in a position as a subject or in front of averb. While in the position of object or preposition, ia can no longer be used because in this position can be occupiedby ia and -nya.Example: Dia / ia ingin aku bekerjalebih keras. (He wants me to work harder).Dia/ ia sangat ramah.
(She is very friendly).Baju ini dibelinya kemarin. (Thisshirt was bought yesterday).Saya harus memberitahunya. (Ihave to tell him).
Saya harus memberitahu dia. (Ihave to tell him). Chapter IIIRESEARCH METHODOLOGY A. Time and Place of the ResearchThis research taken from TheJakarta Post online article”Trump’s Indonesian partner toback Jokowi’s 2019 re-election”edition Wednesday November 29, 2017 and Kompas.com online article “Maju Sebagai Cagub Jabar dari PDI-P, TBHasanudin Minta Restu Paguyuban Pasundan” In Kompas.
com newspapaer, editionMonday January 09, 2018.B. ResearchMethodologyThis researchincludes the qualitative research that describes the selected articles, identifyeach discourse, find the words of personal pronouns and analyze it. Theresearcher uses descriptive method where the writer tries to describe the useof personal pronouns qualitatively which contained in political news articlesof The Jakarta Post and Kompas.com articles.
C. Data ResourcesThe data of this research takenfrom The Jakarta Post andKompas.com articles.
D. Technique of CollectingDataThe data were taken by using documentarytechnique. Documentary technique means that the data are found from reading,studying, and analyzing by identification and classification to collectrequired information related to the study. After all the data have beencollected, the next step is analyzing the data. E.
Techniqueof analyzing data The technique for analyzing datafor this article consisted of (1) identifying personal pronouns in newspapersarticle, (2) classifying thepersonal pronouns (3) counting the occurrences of each personal pronouns,(4) finding the functions ofpersonal pronoun in the newspapers article.