Preparing an increased in BET surface area when treated

Preparing activated carbon from
cocoa by physical activation using carbon dioxide as an activator gas was
reported (Ahmad et al., 2012, and Ahmad et al., 2013).  Ahmad et al., suggest activated carbon
from cocoa with moderate BET surface area (85.09 m2/g) and average
pore size (2.7 nm) with adsorption capacity of methylene blue dye of 212.77
mg/g can be achieved by carbonized the cocoa shell at 800  ?C and further activation process at 850  ?C using fixed bed reactor (Ahmad et al., 2012).  In their other work, the cocoa shell
activated carbon produced by same procedure produce an increased in BET surface
area when treated with Hydrochloric acid after the activation process (Ahmad et
al., 2013). 

 

Cocoa activated carbon also can be
produced by chemically activated using hydrochloric acid (HCl), zinc chloride
(ZnCl2), potassium carbonate (K2CO3),
potassium hydroxide (KOH) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4)
(Ribas et al., 2014, Saucier et al., 2015, Cruz et al.,
2012, Khairuladli et al., 2017 and Pereira et al., 2014).  Ribas et al., successfully achieved a
cocoa activated carbon by mixing powdered cocoa shell with inorganic components
(28.6 % red mud, 28.6 % lime, 14.3 % KOH, 14.3 % Al(NO3)3
and 14.2 % Na2SO4) in 1:1 ratio and were chemical
activated by HCl.  The produced cocoa
activated carbons have better capability of adsorb the reactive violet 5 (RV-5)
textile dye from aqueous solutions as compared to the commercial cocoa
activated carbon in terms of equilibrium time and maximum amount of RV-5 can be
removed (Ribas et al., 2014). 
Saucier et al., described a process of producing cocoa activated
carbon by mixing the powdered cocoa shell with inorganic components (20 % lime
+ 40 % FeCl3 + 40 % ZnCl2) with various inorganic:organic
ratio.  Then, HCl was used to chemically
activated cocoa-shell carbons which induced by microwave. The results showed
cocoa activated carbon with inorganic:organic ratio of 1:1 has the highest
adsorption capacity for the removal of sodium diclofenac (DCF) and nimesulide
(NM) from aqueous solutions (Saucier et al., 2015).  Khairuladli et al., produced cocoa
activated carbon by using K2CO3 as an activating agent
and has capability to adsorp methylene blue with maximum adsorption capacity of
64.98 mg/g.

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Cruz et al., produced
activated carbon from cocoa pod husk by using three different chemical
activating agents (K2CO3, KOH, and ZnCl2) and
found that activated carbon produced using ZnCl2 has the highest BET
surface area and pore volume and capable to remove arsenic up to 80 % in less
than 1 hour (Cruz et al., 2012). 
Whereas other investigations showed different results where H3PO4
is a better chemical ativating agent compared to ZnCl2 as it
produced higher surface area, pore volume and pore diameter (Pereira et al.,
2014).