POLLUTION: waste deposits, forest fire occurrences, various wastes from



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is a by product of the increasing human population, our affluent lifestyle,
industrialisation and concentration in cities. A few of the more significant pollution
threats are described below.

1)      Air pollution:

presence of compounds in the air or toxic chemicals, at levels that pose a
health risk is the definition of acid rain. This lower the quality of the air
or cause detrimental changes to the quality of life such as the damaging of the
ozone layer or causing global warming. Happens from motorcycles, solid waste
deposits, forest fire occurrences, various wastes from industrial outlets and
many more.

of fertilizer is broken down by soil bacteria to nitrogen oxides release to
atmosphere. Burning fossil fuels releases nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide
to atmosphere. Nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide react with water vapor which
lead to acid deposition. Acid deposition will killing lakes and forest,
corrodes marble, metal, and stonework. Nitrogen oxide and hydrocarbon react and
results in photochemical smog which mixture of bad chemicals. The chemicals in
photochemical smog include nitrogen oxides, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs),
ozone, and PAN (peroxyacytyl nitrate). Nitrogen oxides also cause greenhouse
effect and breakdown the ozone. 

2)      Noise pollution:

exposure to elevated sound levels that may lead to adverse effects in humans or
other living organisms is the definition of noise pollution. Regardless of how
long or consistent the exposure is, sound levels less than 70 dB are not
damaging to living organisms, according to the World Health Organization. May
be hazardous, exposure for more than 8 hours to constant noise beyond 85 dB. You
are very likely exposed to traffic noise pollution around 85dB, if you work for
8 hours daily in close proximity to a busy road or highway. Numerous heavy
industrial vehicles, heavy machinery and above average noise levels have all
caused tremendous noise pollution in our environments. Road traffic, domestic
noise and even traffic emanating from rail and air all have given rise to
increasing noise levels.


3)      Radiation:

increase in the natural radiation levels caused by human activities is the
definition of radioactive pollution. Due to human activities, it is estimated
that about 20% of radiation we are exposed to. The human activities that can
release radiation involve activities with radioactive materials such as
handling and processing of radioactive materials, handling, mining, and storage
of radioactive waste, as well as the use of radioactive reactions to generate
energy such as nuclear power plants, along with the research and use of
radiation in medicine such as X-rays. Any form of ionizing or nonionizing
radiation that results from human activities. The well-known radiation results
from the detonation of nuclear devices and the controlled release of energy by
nuclear- power generating plants.

nuclear power is extremely efficient, two major problem seem to be associated
with its use:

threat of nuclear accident, as happened at Chernobyl in Ukraine in 1986. It is
estimated that up to 70000 people will die from cancer associated with the
radioactive poisoning from this catastrophe.(refer appendix 6) the dumping of
radioactive waste. Countries around the world are examining the possibilities
of using Australia as a suitable dumping site.(refer appendix 7)

4)      Water pollution:

presence in groundwater of biological agents and toxic chemicals that exceed
what is naturally found in the water and may pose a threat to human health and
the environment is the definition of water pollution. Plus, as a result of
various human activities, water pollution may consist of chemicals introduced
into the water bodies. Regardless of the harm they may pose to human health and
the environment, any amount of those chemicals pollutes the water. Presence of
foreign waste matter which makes the water quality poorer. Various germs in
combination with poisonous materials makes the water unsuitable for drinking or
general use purposes.





5)      Light pollution:

excessive or inappropriate use of artificial light which is known as light
pollution that can have serious environmental consequences for our climate,
wildlife, and humans. Components of light pollution which includes, clutter which
is bright, confusing and excessive groupings of light sources, light trespass which
is light falling where it is not intended or needed, glare which is excessive
brightness that causes visual discomfort and Skyglow which is brightening of
the night sky over inhabited areas.

civilization is a side effect of light pollution. Its sources include building
exterior and illuminated sporting venues, streetlights factories, offices, commercial
properties, advertising, and interior lighting. The fact is that much outdoor
lighting used at night is inefficient improperly shielded, poorly targeted,
overly bright, and, in many cases, completely unnecessary. This light, and the
electricity used to create it, is being wasted by spilling it into the sky,
rather than focusing it on to the actual objects and areas that people want

6)      Pesticides and insecticides

hydrocarbon like DDT (refer appendix 1) and dieldrin were once widely used and
have been shown to cause significant problems as they accumulate through the
food chain.

7)      Oil spills

give rise to major problems when large transport tankers spill huge quantities
at sea killing marine life.(refer appendix 2)

8)      Acid decomposition

ph of lakes and rivers has fallen as rain dissolves sulphur and nitrogen oxides
emitted from the smoke stacks of industrialised cities. Falling ph levels
killed almost all forms of life in some lakes across north America and Europe.
(refer appendix 3)





9)      CFCs

Antarctica there is an “ozone hole” which has been growing each year that
observation have been taken. Ozon protects us and all forms of life from UV
radiation. It has been estimated that for every 1 per cent drop in atmospheric
ozone there is 5-6 per cent increase in skin cancer. The main chemicals
implicated in this destruction of the ozone are chlorofluorocarbon(CFCs) which
have been widely used since the 1920s in cooling system and fire
extinguishers.(refer appendix 4)

10)  Heavy metal poisoning

pollutants include heavy metals like mercury, cadmium and arsenic and these
have been shown to cause a major loss of life in the aquatic environment.(refer
appendix 5)

11)  Fertilizers, detergents, sewage

off found in these sources, containing high levels of nutrients with nitrates
and phosphate, has been shown to destroy many waterways by either direct
poisoning or promoting excess algal, plant growth, leading to the choking of
waterways or destruction of marine beds.


1)      Solar power:

from the energy from the sun and fuel isn’t burned is solar power, so there are
no harmful gases produced or any emissions in its production and its use. It is
a technology that is predicted to reach historically carbon-neutrality. For an
example, even with emissions prevented by the energy generation and will remain
so forever, according to Atlantic.com, the emissions from the production of
panels and other equipment will still break. This energy is ideal for business,
institutions and residents, and there are many possible applications available,
such as panels on rooftops for electricity or photovoltaic single and solar
vents to cool houses, heat generation, and solar ovens for cooking.





2)      Geothermal energy:

naturally occurring thermal energy that is produced by the Earth’s molten inner
core is geothermal energy. To cool and heat buildings, it can be used. To run
the pumps that are part of the system, there is some electricity needed.
However, compared to fossil fuel use, Geo-Energy considers this impact minimal
and as being favourable in
improving air quality.

3)      Bioenergy:

production from biomass got from living things such as plants and tress or forestry
residues, like agricultural and recently dead material, wood and bioenergy crops
like poplar, switchgrass and corn etc is bioenergy. Bioenergy’s usefulness
depends on what the sources of biomass or feedstock are, and how long it takes
to grow them. According to Congressional Research Service,it is not considered
completely carbon neutral, when derived from wood and its wastes, as trees
require a long time to grow, and burning them contributes to carbon emissions.

4)      Hydroelectricity:

produced by flowing water or the gravitational force of falling is hydroelectricity.
the most widely used form of renewable energy is currently hydroelectricity. In
2006, research findings reported by The Seattle Times, 2016 has found that dams
produce 1.2 percent of total global emissions, and are not as clean as they
were earlier considered to be.