POLLUTION:DEFINATION:Pollutionis a by product of the increasing human population, our affluent lifestyle,industrialisation and concentration in cities.
A few of the more significant pollutionthreats are described below.1) Air pollution:Thepresence of compounds in the air or toxic chemicals, at levels that pose ahealth risk is the definition of acid rain. This lower the quality of the airor cause detrimental changes to the quality of life such as the damaging of theozone layer or causing global warming. Happens from motorcycles, solid wastedeposits, forest fire occurrences, various wastes from industrial outlets andmany more.Productionof fertilizer is broken down by soil bacteria to nitrogen oxides release toatmosphere. Burning fossil fuels releases nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxideto atmosphere. Nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide react with water vapor whichlead to acid deposition. Acid deposition will killing lakes and forest,corrodes marble, metal, and stonework.
Nitrogen oxide and hydrocarbon react andresults in photochemical smog which mixture of bad chemicals. The chemicals inphotochemical smog include nitrogen oxides, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs),ozone, and PAN (peroxyacytyl nitrate). Nitrogen oxides also cause greenhouseeffect and breakdown the ozone. 2) Noise pollution:Regularexposure to elevated sound levels that may lead to adverse effects in humans orother living organisms is the definition of noise pollution. Regardless of howlong or consistent the exposure is, sound levels less than 70 dB are notdamaging to living organisms, according to the World Health Organization. Maybe hazardous, exposure for more than 8 hours to constant noise beyond 85 dB.
Youare very likely exposed to traffic noise pollution around 85dB, if you work for8 hours daily in close proximity to a busy road or highway. Numerous heavyindustrial vehicles, heavy machinery and above average noise levels have allcaused tremendous noise pollution in our environments. Road traffic, domesticnoise and even traffic emanating from rail and air all have given rise toincreasing noise levels. 3) Radiation: Theincrease in the natural radiation levels caused by human activities is thedefinition of radioactive pollution.
Due to human activities, it is estimatedthat about 20% of radiation we are exposed to. The human activities that canrelease radiation involve activities with radioactive materials such ashandling and processing of radioactive materials, handling, mining, and storageof radioactive waste, as well as the use of radioactive reactions to generateenergy such as nuclear power plants, along with the research and use ofradiation in medicine such as X-rays. Any form of ionizing or nonionizingradiation that results from human activities.
The well-known radiation resultsfrom the detonation of nuclear devices and the controlled release of energy bynuclear- power generating plants. Whilstnuclear power is extremely efficient, two major problem seem to be associatedwith its use:Thethreat of nuclear accident, as happened at Chernobyl in Ukraine in 1986. It isestimated that up to 70000 people will die from cancer associated with theradioactive poisoning from this catastrophe.
(refer appendix 6) the dumping ofradioactive waste. Countries around the world are examining the possibilitiesof using Australia as a suitable dumping site.(refer appendix 7)4) Water pollution: Thepresence in groundwater of biological agents and toxic chemicals that exceedwhat is naturally found in the water and may pose a threat to human health andthe environment is the definition of water pollution.
Plus, as a result ofvarious human activities, water pollution may consist of chemicals introducedinto the water bodies. Regardless of the harm they may pose to human health andthe environment, any amount of those chemicals pollutes the water. Presence offoreign waste matter which makes the water quality poorer. Various germs incombination with poisonous materials makes the water unsuitable for drinking orgeneral use purposes. 5) Light pollution:Theexcessive or inappropriate use of artificial light which is known as lightpollution that can have serious environmental consequences for our climate,wildlife, and humans.
Components of light pollution which includes, clutter whichis bright, confusing and excessive groupings of light sources, light trespass whichis light falling where it is not intended or needed, glare which is excessivebrightness that causes visual discomfort and Skyglow which is brightening ofthe night sky over inhabited areas.Industrialcivilization is a side effect of light pollution. Its sources include buildingexterior and illuminated sporting venues, streetlights factories, offices, commercialproperties, advertising, and interior lighting.
The fact is that much outdoorlighting used at night is inefficient improperly shielded, poorly targeted,overly bright, and, in many cases, completely unnecessary. This light, and theelectricity used to create it, is being wasted by spilling it into the sky,rather than focusing it on to the actual objects and areas that people wantilluminated.6) Pesticides and insecticides Chlorinatedhydrocarbon like DDT (refer appendix 1) and dieldrin were once widely used andhave been shown to cause significant problems as they accumulate through thefood chain.
7) Oil spillsThesegive rise to major problems when large transport tankers spill huge quantitiesat sea killing marine life.(refer appendix 2)8) Acid decomposition Theph of lakes and rivers has fallen as rain dissolves sulphur and nitrogen oxidesemitted from the smoke stacks of industrialised cities. Falling ph levelskilled almost all forms of life in some lakes across north America and Europe.(refer appendix 3) 9) CFCsOverAntarctica there is an “ozone hole” which has been growing each year thatobservation have been taken. Ozon protects us and all forms of life from UVradiation. It has been estimated that for every 1 per cent drop in atmosphericozone there is 5-6 per cent increase in skin cancer.
The main chemicalsimplicated in this destruction of the ozone are chlorofluorocarbon(CFCs) whichhave been widely used since the 1920s in cooling system and fireextinguishers.(refer appendix 4)10) Heavy metal poisoningIndustrialpollutants include heavy metals like mercury, cadmium and arsenic and thesehave been shown to cause a major loss of life in the aquatic environment.(referappendix 5)11) Fertilizers, detergents, sewageRunoff found in these sources, containing high levels of nutrients with nitratesand phosphate, has been shown to destroy many waterways by either directpoisoning or promoting excess algal, plant growth, leading to the choking ofwaterways or destruction of marine beds.WAYSTO OVERCOME:1) Solar power:Producedfrom the energy from the sun and fuel isn’t burned is solar power, so there areno harmful gases produced or any emissions in its production and its use. It isa technology that is predicted to reach historically carbon-neutrality. For anexample, even with emissions prevented by the energy generation and will remainso forever, according to Atlantic.com, the emissions from the production ofpanels and other equipment will still break. This energy is ideal for business,institutions and residents, and there are many possible applications available,such as panels on rooftops for electricity or photovoltaic single and solarvents to cool houses, heat generation, and solar ovens for cooking.
2) Geothermal energy:Thenaturally occurring thermal energy that is produced by the Earth’s molten innercore is geothermal energy. To cool and heat buildings, it can be used. To runthe pumps that are part of the system, there is some electricity needed.However, compared to fossil fuel use, Geo-Energy considers this impact minimaland as being favourable inimproving air quality.
3) Bioenergy:Theproduction from biomass got from living things such as plants and tress or forestryresidues, like agricultural and recently dead material, wood and bioenergy cropslike poplar, switchgrass and corn etc is bioenergy. Bioenergy’s usefulnessdepends on what the sources of biomass or feedstock are, and how long it takesto grow them. According to Congressional Research Service,it is not consideredcompletely carbon neutral, when derived from wood and its wastes, as treesrequire a long time to grow, and burning them contributes to carbon emissions. 4) Hydroelectricity:Electricityproduced by flowing water or the gravitational force of falling is hydroelectricity.
the most widely used form of renewable energy is currently hydroelectricity. In2006, research findings reported by The Seattle Times, 2016 has found that damsproduce 1.2 percent of total global emissions, and are not as clean as theywere earlier considered to be.