Pleurotus the stem with respect to the cap, while

Pleurotus ostreatus or more commonly known as the
oyster mushroom is an edible type of mushroom. The naming of this mushroom
comes from the Latin pleurotus (sideways)
refers to the sideways growth of the stem with respect to the cap, while the Latin ostreatus (and
the English common name, oyster) refers to the shape of the cap which resembles
the bivalve of the same name. But many also refers the name of this mushroom
because of it’s taste resemblance to a real oyster.

These mushrooms are profitable in the agribusiness.
More than 5000 mushroom varieties could be the face for foods and medicines. In
fungal classification system, which was proposed by Ainsworth and being
followed by J. Webster (Sharma, 1989), almost of all the edible mushrooms in the
world are the members of the subdivision of Basidiomycotina and Ascomycotina
(Dung, 2007). Oyster mushrooms have been cultivated, commercialized and
consumed remarkably. Not only that these mushrooms have excellent flavour, but
it is also high content of nutritious components, like proteins, carbohydrates,
vitamins and minerals. In addition, many research projects have revealed that
oyster mushrooms could prevent and reduce several serious diseases, including
high blood pressure and cholesterols (Agrawal et al., 2010), and breast cancer,
prostate cancer (Jedinak and Sliva, 2008).

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The mushroom has broad, fan or
oyster-shaped cap spanning
5-25 cm, it’s a natural specimen that range from white to gray or tan to
dark-brown where the margin is inrolled when young, and it is smooth and often
somewhat lobed or wavy. The flesh is white, firm, and varies in thickness due
to stripe arrangement. The gills of the mushroom are white to
cream, and descend on the stalk if present. If so, the stipe is off-center with
a lateral attachment to wood. The spore print of the mushroom is
white to lilac-gray, and best viewed on dark background. The mushroom’s stipe
is normally absent. When it is present, it is short and thick. These description
is a general view of a common oyster mushroom.

However,
a more accurate description of the oyster mushroom was described by (Kummer,
1871). In his findings, he described the pileus on average of 15 cm broad,
typically fan shaped and shelving (but if on top of a hard surface often;
stipitate to marginate behind or with a practically central stipe), surface
glabrous, moist, hygrophanous, when fresh dark fuligineous to watery gray
slowly becoming a dingy tan to clay colour in fading. Where the context is
thick, odor fungoid are often strong when in age and the taste of fungoid is
present as bitter to disagreeable. The lamella is closed, broad, decurrent (if
strip is present), typically anastomosing near area of attachment, pallid to
(in age) cream colour, and adges at times staining brownish. Strip is absent to
present and if it is present lateral to eccentric or rarely central, 2-6 cm long,
1-3 cm thick, solid, pallid within, base often somewhat pubescent. Spore deposite
lilac gray as air dried; 7-9 x 3-3.5 µm, sub-cylinderic in face or back view,
in profile cylinderic to slightly allantoid, smooth, yellowish on Melzer’s.

On
another finding, by Fries (1821), it was described as the species as having a
blackish-cinerous pileus which fades. On this basis the variant described here
is considered to be identical with (or very close to) the type variety. As we
can see, there have been conflicting statement in the literature as to the
colour of the spore deposit. Some have found a grey colour which some of the
description states it’s black in colour of the spores. Therefore, by try to
describe about the morphological being of a Pleurotus ostreatus is incredibly difficult as
there are many different answers to choose from. But regardless of the findings,
the closest or the more common one to the variety will be the one that is
regarded as the trustworthy.

However, there are some mushroom that is a
lookalike to the oyster mushroom. Omphalotus nidiformis is
a toxic lookalike found in Australia and Japan. In North America, Omphalotus
olivascens, the western jack-o’-lantern mushroom and Clitocybe
dealbata, the ivory funnel mushroom, both bear a resemblance to Pleurotus
ostreatus. Both Omphalotus olivascens and Clitocybe
dealbata contain muscarine and are toxic. Therefore, extreme
care is needed to ensure that one does not simply wat that wrong mushroom. An
in-detail description is needed first to identify the type of mushroom before
doing anything with it.