Plants that providing doses of extract in vivo at

Plants are the natural resources for various
enzymatic as well as enzyme inhibitory activities. Some animal studies have
suggested the role of plant extracts in preventing an excessive postprandial
rise of blood glucose levels (Karau et al.,
2012). The use of antioxidants along with carbohydrate-degradation inhibiting
compounds has been widely reported to reducing the levels of oxidative stress
and in slowing or preventing the development of complications associated with
chronic diseases (Oyenihi et al.,
2015; Zhang et al., 2015).

In the
present study, the strain J-7, isolated
from the root tissues Syzygium cumini, was presumptively identified to
be belonging to Streptomyces
sp. The ethyl acetate extract of endophytic actinobacterium strain was thus
tested for different in vitro starch
degradation inhibition and antioxidant properties. The ethyl acetate extract of
J-7 effectively controlled ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase based reactions. Likewise,
J-7 extract was able to inhibit DPPH free radicals in vitro. The method is based on the conversion of DPPH free
radical in the presence of a hydrogen-donating antioxidant to a non-radical form
by the reaction (Christhudas
et al., 2013).
Hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity of a compound is directly related to its
antioxidant activity (Shukla et al.,
2009). Ethyl acetate extract of J-7 prevented the free radical-mediated
deoxyribose damage by reacting with hydroxyl free
radicals. In the ?-carotene linoleate model system, coupled oxidation of
?-carotene and linoleic acid takes place, which generates free radicals. As a
result, the system loses its chromophore and characteristic orange color is
produced, which can be monitored spectrophotometrically (Christhudas et al., 2013). In our
study, the inhibition of ?-carotene bleaching by J-7 extract showed almost
equivalent activity with vitamin C (500 ?g/ml).
For measurement of reductive ability, the conversion of Fe3+ to Fe2+
in the presence of extract was investigated. The reducing power increased with
increasing concentration of the extract and was found to be higher as compared
to BHT. The reducing capacity of a compound may be an indicator of its
potential antioxidant activity (Meir et
al., 1995).

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Competitive inhibition
refers to that mode in which substrate affinity of the enzyme is hindered by
the presence of another molecule with similar symmetry but higher affinity
towards the enzyme. The results of present study indicated that the extract
exhibited competitive modes of inhibition towards both the enzymes tested. Thus,
it may be assumed that providing doses of extract in vivo at regular intervals will result in decreased exposure of
the enzyme to the carbohydrate moiety resulting in suppression of secondary
effects of diabetes.

The antidiabetic, antioxidant
and scavenging are believed to be due to the presence of measurable amount of phenolics
as estimated by Folin-Ciocalteau method (Moradi-Afrapoli et al., 2012). Polyphenols obtained from plants have been
demonstrated to have significant antioxidant activity. This activity is
believed to be mainly due to their redox properties which play an important
role in adsorbing and neutralizing free radicals, quenching singlet and triplet
oxygen, or decomposing peroxides (Upadhyay et
al., 2010).

Our assumptions are
further supported by the results of LC-MS analysis, which indicated the
occurrence of chromene family of compounds. Chromenes have been widely
demonstrated to exhibit a remarkable array of biochemical and pharmacological
activities. They constitute the basic structural back bone of many types of
tannin and polyphenols widely present in plants e.g. green tea, fruits and
vegetables (Rensburg et al., 1997).
The presence of the chromene-containing structure has been associated with the
capability to prevent several diseases (Kennedy and Thornes, 1997). Synthetic
analogues have attracted considerable attention due to their useful biological
and pharmacological properties including antimicrobial (El-Saghier et al., 2007; Kumar et al., 2009), antioxidant (Alvey et al., 2008), anticancer (Kemnitzer et al., 2008), anticoagulant,
antidiabetic (Vishnu et al., 2015),
hypotensive (Tandon et al., 1991),
local anesthetic (Longobardi et al.,
1990) and central nervous system activities as well as treatment of Alzheimer’s
disease (Bruhlmann et al., 2001) and
Schizophrenia disorder (Kesten et al.,
1999). Substances, like hydroxyl-coumarins (Hoult and Paya, 1996), directly
recombine free radicals and interrupt the initiation and/or propagation of the
induced chain reactions. Due to the typical phenolic behavior (Traykova and
Kostova, 2005) they act as potent metal chelators and free radical scavengers,
resulting in a powerful antioxidant effect. 

To show antioxidant
activity, a coumarin derivative has to possess at least one hydroxyl group (Shukla et al., 2009). The evaluation of coumarin isolates from Geranium
wallichianum (Ismail et al., 2009) and Korean medicinal
plants (Tandon et al., 1991)
highlights the presence of catechol moiety and oxygen containing scaffold in
C-6 and C-7 positions of the coumarin core for antioxidant activity. Also, the
?-pyrone coumarin ring uplifts free radical scavenging activity, antilipid
peroxidation ability and also has a suppressive effect on enzymes (Tandon et al., 1991). Synthetic compounds,
4-methylcoumarins (Cavar et al.,
2009), substituted 7- or 8-hydroxybenzof-coumarins,
6-hydroxybenzoh-coumarins and 7-azomethinecoumarins were tested for their
antioxidant ability in vitro (Kontogiorgis
and Hadjipavlou-Litina, 2004)
and for their ability to interact with DPPH stable free radical (Al-Amiery et
al., 2015 a), scavenging of hydrogen peroxide (Al-Amiery et
al., 2015 b), superoxide anion and inhibition of lipid peroxidation,
too (Verma et al., 2014).