Performance of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.)Varieties for Growth and Yield under Sub-Tropical Condition of GarhwalHimalayasMalee Ram Jhajhra*, Arjun Lal Ola, and D.K.RanaDept.
of Horticulture, School of Agricultureand Allied Sciences,H.N.B Garhwal University, Srinagar Garhwal,Uttarakhand – 246174.* Correspondanceauthor [email protected]
comAbstract: Field experiment was conducted at Horticultural Research Centre, H.N.B.Garhwal University, Srinagar- Garhwal, Uttarakhand (India) during rabi season 2015-16 to identify the suitablevarieties for cultivation with high yield and quality traits using 15 varietiesof Fenugreek(Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with threereplication. The results are indicated that, the analysis of variance revealedhighly significant differences among varieties for almost all the traits.
Theyield parameters showed that Rmt-1 variety significantly maximum plantheight (70.89 cm). The maximum number of primary branches (5.67) and secondarybranches (6.
35) was found in JKSPLvariety. The maximum pod weight (13.35 g/plant), seed yield (8.51/ plant) seed yield (1610 kg/ ha) were recorded in variety of Rajandera Kranti.
Keywords: Fenugreek, Growth,Variance, Variety and Yield IntroductionFenugreek(Trigonella foenum graecum L.) called “Methi” in Hindi, is grown inIndia as Rabi season crop,considered to be one of the major seed spices. It isbelongs to the family Leguminacae and sub family Papilionaceae. It is native tosouthern Europe and Asia (Rathore, 2001).
India is leading in fenugreek seedproduction, producing about 90 % of the world fenugreek production (Acharya etal., 2008). Major seed producing countries include India, Ethiopia, Egypt,and Turkey. The seeds are golden in colour and rectangular in shape, averaging4 mm in length, 2 mm in width, and 1.5 mm in thickness (Altuntas et al., 2005). The 1000-seed weightvaries from 15.
5 – 16.4 g to 18-22 g and bushel weight is 25-27 kg (Thamburaj and Singh, 2005). Kasuri Methi (Trigonella corniculata) is slow growing plant remains in a rosettecondition for most part of the vegetative growth (Dhaliwal, 2012). It ismainly grown as leafy vegetable and seeds in the plains of north India. Itsfresh tender leaves and pods are eaten as fried vegetable being rich in iron,calcium, protein and vitamins (Singh etal.
, 2012).The seeds also contain major nutrients likeminerals, vitamins A & B, P and K and minor nutrients like Ca, Fe and Naand amino acids like leucine, valine lysine and phenylalanine besidescellulose, hemicelluloses and oleoresin which are used in flavours. Fenugreekoil is used in butterscotch, cheese, liquorices, pickle, rum, syrup and vanillaflavours. Powdered seeds or seed extracts are used as flavor and aroma agentsin the food and cosmetic industries and dyes in the textile industry (Duke et al., 1981).A wide range of medicinal properties has beenattributed to fenugreek such as wound-healing, bust enhancement, enhancedlactation in weaning mothers, as an aphrodisiac, anti-diabetic,antihyperthyroidism, anticancer, gastro-protective, antioxidant, antipyretic,antimicrobial, anthelmintic, antisterility, antiallergy and antiin flammatoryeffects (Acharya et al., 2008).
Fenugreekcultivar performs differently under different agro- climatic conditions andvarious cultivars of same species grown even in same environment oftenly haveyield differences. Because, yield and quality of crop are very complexcharacteristics depending on certain biological alignments between environmentand heredity. The characteristics of a cultivar as well as combination oftraits differ according to climate condition of the localities. Materials and MethodsThe experimental materials constituted acollection of 15 varieties of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) namely, AFG-1,AFG-2, AFG-3, K-25, Kasuri Methi, JKSPL, Local-1, Local-2, Local-3, Local-4,Local-5, Local-6, Rajandera Kranti, Rmt-1and T-1 varieties were collected from N.R.
C.S.S. Ajmer(Rajasthan), Jaipur (Rajasthan), Nagaur (Rajasthan), Srinagar (U.K.
), Rishikesh(U.K.), Jobner (Rajasthan), Kota (Rajasthan), Alwar (Rajasthan), S.K.N. jobner,Jaipur (Rajasthan). Theexperiment was conducted in rabi season, 2015-16 at Horticultural ResearchCentre of H.N.
B. Garhwal University, Srinagar (Garhwal) situated in theAlaknanda valley (78° 47′ 30″ E longitude and 30° 13′ 0″ N latitudeand at an elevation of 550 m above MSL), a semiarid, sub-tropical climate withdry summer and rigorous winters with occasional dense fog in the morning hoursfrom mid December to mid February. The experiment was laid out in RandomizedBlock Design with three replications. The entire experimental field was dividedinto three blocks of equal size and each block possessed 15 plots. Each plotmeasured 5 X 1 m2 area. The varieties were sowed at spacing of plantto plant is 30 cm and row to row 15 cm and seed are sown 1.
5 to 3cm deep in thesoil. All the recommended agronomic practices were followed to raise a healthycrop. Observation were recorded on quantitative and qualitative traits viz., Days taken to germination, Plantheight (cm), Number ofleaves per plant, Daystaken to 50% flowering, No.of pod/ plant, Pod length(cm.), Pod weight/plant (g), Seed yield /plot (g),Seed yield/ha. (kg), on fiverandomly selected plants.
The data obtained from selected plants were subjectedto analysis of variance (Panse and Sukhatma, 1967).Results and discussion:The analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences for allthe characters. The data presented in Table 1 and fig 1. Showed thatsignificant differences were recorded among the radish varieties.
The maximum germinationpercentage (81.36) was recordedin Rajendra Kranti,whereas the minimum (64.70) germination percentage was observed in Local-5 variety. The variation in germination among thevarieties might be attribute to a climatic factor viz., temperature, rainfalland relative humidity which can enhance seed germination. The similar resultsobtained are accordance with the findings of Vasudevan et al. (2008) in fenugreek.The maximum plant height (70.
89 cm) wasrecorded under the variety of Rmt-1, whereas the minimum plant height (59.49cm)was recorded under the variety Kasuri methi. Different responses toplant height might be due to genetic characteristic of genotypes andadaptability to a particular environment. These findings confirm the resultobtained by Aggrwal et al., (2013); Chowdhury et al., (2014) and Singh etal.
, (2015) in fenugreek. The maximum number of leaves (109.33/ plant) wasrecorded in the variety K-25, whereas the minimum number of leaves after harvest 43.67 wasrecorded under the variety Local-3. The number of leaves is an importantcharacter as the leaves are the plant factories for manufacturingphotosynthesis. Therefore, the cultivar with more number of leaves generallygives high yields. These results obtained are accordance with the finding of Aggrwal etal.
, (2013) in fenugreek and Magashi et al., (2014) in cowpea. Table 1: Mean performance offenugreek varieties for germination percent plant height and number of leaves. S. N. Name of varieties Germination (%) Plant height (cm) Number of leaves 1. AFG-1 72.19 67.
60 76.67 2. AFG-2 69.57 67.11 71.67 3.
AFG-3 69.23 67.37 70.00 4. K-25 69.71 60.40 109.
33 5. Kasuri Methi 69.30 59.49 106.
67 6. JKSPL 70.25 60.52 108.00 7.
Local-1 70.25 65.40 52.33 8. Local-2 66.28 63.68 49.33 9.
Local-3 64.61 62.39 43.67 10. Local-4(Kasuri) 66.
29 61.36 106.67 11.
Local-5 64.70 64.57 49.00 12. Local-6 66.63 62.
61 49.00 13. Rajandera Kranti 81.36 68.52 103.33 14.
Rmt-1 80.99 70.89 87.
67 15. T-1 72.32 62.44 61.33 S.Em± 0.29 0.13 1.
92 CD at 5% 0.84 0.38 5.56 Fig.
1: Mean performance of fenugreek varieties for germination percent plant height andnumber of leaves. Yield parametersPerformanceof various treatments with respect to days taken to 50% flowering was found tohave significant variation (Table 2-3 and fig 2-3). The minimum number of days34.33 taken to 50% flowering was recorded under Rajandera Kranti, whereas themaximum days 41.33 taken to 50% flowering was recorded under K-25. The possiblereason of early flowering in certain genotypes indicated adaptability of thesegenotypes in a particular environment, better and efficient utilization ofnutrients in a relatively hostile environment which might have resulted inearly termination of vegetative phase and initiation of reproductive stage ascompared to genotypes which took longer time to flowering. Similar results havealso been reported by Pushpa et al.
,(2012) and Singh et al., (2015) in fenugreek.The maximum number of pod 71.51 per plant was recorded underthe variety Local-4 and Kasuri methi, whereas the minimum number of pod 29.78per plant was recorded under the variety Local-5. This might bedue to congenial climatic condition like cool relative humidity, lowtemperature and optimum photoperiod for luxuriant vegetative growth andflowering which favors betters pods production.
This may possibly due to itsgood plant growth and comparatively more number of primary branches causinggreater assimilation of the photosynthate which ultimately resulted into higheryield. These similar results were agreement with the findings of Chowdhury et al., (2014); Thakral et al., (2006) and Malik and Tehlan (2009) in fenugreek.The maximum length of pod 12.25cmwas recorded under the variety Rmt-1, whereas, the minimum length of pod 2.28cmwas recorded under the variety Kasuri methi.
The reason behind thevariations of pod might be due to the genetic makeup of variety by Datta (2004); Pushpa et al.,(2012) and Malik and Tehlan (2009) infenugreek.The variety Rajandera Kranti (V13) significantlyhighest total weight of pod per plant 13.35 g, whereas the minimum total weightof pod per plant 8.53 g. was recorded under the variety Local-3 (V9).
These similar results were agreement with the findings of Pushpa et al., (2012) in fenugreek. Themaximum seed yield per plot 805.00 g and seed yield 1610.
00kg/ha were recordedunder the variety Rajandera Kranti, whereas, the minimum seed yield per plot287.33g and seed yield 574.66 kg/ha were recorded under the variety Kasurimethi.The increase in seed yield might be due to favorable climatic conditions liketemperature, high relative humidity and optimum sunshine hours.
The similarresults were founded by Datta & Chatterjee (2004); Pushpa et al., (2012); Thakral et al. (2006) and Singhet al.
, (2015) in fenugreek. Table 2: Mean performance offenugreek varieties for Days taken to 50% flowering, No.of pod per plant and Podlength (cm). S. N. Name of varieties Days taken to 50 % flowering No. of pod per plant Pod length (cm) 1. AFG-1 35.
67 31.89 10.86 2. AFG-2 35.67 33.56 11.48 3. AFG-3 35.
67 39.06 11.52 4. K-25 41.33 68.
29 2.62 5. Kasuri Methi 40.67 70.
39 2.28 6. JKSPL 41.
00 69.44 2.52 7. Local-1 36.
33 35.56 10.42 8.
Local-2 36.33 39.33 9.63 9. Local-3 36.67 32.
50 8.67 10. Local-4(Kasuri) 40.67 71.
51 2.62 11. Local-5 36.67 29.78 9.51 12.
Local-6 35.33 33.80 9.46 13. Rajandera Kranti 34.33 40.
22 11.74 14. Rmt-1 34.
67 38.17 12.25 15. T-1 36.33 34.56 9.62 S.Em± 0.
33 0.65 0.28 CD at 5% 0.
96 1.89 0.81 Table 3: Mean performance offenugreek varieties for Pod wt perplant(g), Seedyield per plot(g)and Seedyield/ ha(kg). S.N. Name of Varieties Pod wt per plant(g) Seed yield per plot(g) Seed yield/ ha(kg) 1. AFG-1 12.47 476.
33 952.66 2 AFG-2 13.13 604.33 1208.66 3 AFG-3 13.30 524.00 1048.00 4 K-25 12.
48 302.33 604.00 5 Kasuri Methi 12.99 287.33 574.
66 6 JKSPL 13.23 297.33 594.66 7 Local-1 13.19 523.67 1047.
34 8 Local-2 13.21 481.33 962.68 9 Local-3 8.53 497.33 994.
67 10 Local-4 (Kasuri) 11.62 292.33 584.68 11 Local-5 12.
49 578.00 1156.00 12 Local-6 13.
14 527.67 1055.34 13 Rajandera Kranti 13.35 805.00 1610.00 14 Rmt-1 9.
22 770.33 1540.66 15 T-1 11.47 511.33 1022.66 S.Em± 0.
14 3.11 0.21 CD at 5% 0.41 9.01 0.60 Fig.
2: Mean performance of fenugreek varieties for Days taken to 50 % flowering,No. of pod per plantand Pod length. Fig.
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