OVERALL FACTS:Geographic Location: Central Africa (Landlocked)Bordering Countries: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Libya, Niger, Nigeria, SudanPopulation: 12,075,985 peopleLanguages: French, Arab,…Demographic Profile: 40% of Chad’s population lives below the poverty line.Population will continue to grow rapidly (high fertility rate).Mortality rate: HighLife expectancy: Low.Chad has the world’s third highest death rate.Most common risk factors: poverty, anemia, rural habitation, high fertility, poor education, and a lack of access to family planning and obstetric care. Impoverished, uneducated adolescents living in rural areas are most affected.As of October 2017, more than 320,000 refugees from Sudan and more than 75,000 from the Central African Republic.Strain Chad’s limited resources and create tensions in some communities. Thousands of new refugees fled to Chad in 2013 to escape the violence in the Darfur region of Sudan. The large refugee populations are hesitant to return to their home countries because of continued instability. Chad was relatively stable in 2012 in comparison to other neighbouring countriesPast fighting between government forces, resistance groups and violence have left nearly 60,000 citizens displaced (IDP) in the eastern part of the country.Median Age: 17.8 yearsPopulation Growth Rate: 1.86%Birth Rate: 35.6/1,000 populationDeath Rate: 13.8/1,000 populationGDP: 9.60 billion USD GOVERNMENT:Government Type: Presidential Republic Legal System: Mix of Civil Law and Customary LawCivil Law- A system of rules and principals arranged in codes and easily accessible to citizen and jurists. It favors cooperation, order and predictability, based on logical and dynamic taxonomy. It has civil codes that avoids too much detail and has general clauses that permit adaptation to change.Customary Law- Constitution: Proposed as a revision by the President after a Council of Ministers (cabinet) decision or by the National AssemblyApproval for consideration of a revision requires at least three-fifths majority vote by the AssemblyPassage requires approval by referendum or at least two-thirds majority vote by the AssemblyExecutive Branch:Chief of State: President Idriss DEBY Itno, Lt. Gen. (since 4 December 1990)Head of Government: Prime Minister Albert Pahimi PADACKE (since 15 February 2016)Cabinet: Council of Ministers (members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister)Elections/Appointments: President directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits)Prime minister appointed by the presidentLegislative Branch:Description: Unicameral National Assembly (188 seats; 118 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 70 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 4-year terms)Judicial Branch:Highest courts: Constitutional Council Consists of 3 judges and 6 juristsSupreme Court Consists of the chief justice, 3 chamber presidents, and 12 judges or councilors and divided into 3 chambersJudge Selection and Term of Office: Supreme Court chief justice selected by the presidentCouncilors – 8 designated by the president and 7 by the speaker of the National AssemblyChief justice and councilors appointed for lifeConstitutional Council judges – 2 appointed by the president and 1 by the speaker of the National AssemblyJurists – 3 each by the president and by the speaker of the National AssemblyJudges appointed for 9-year termsSubordinate courts: High Court of Justice; Courts of Appeal; Tribunals; Justices of the PeaceDIPLOMATIC RELATIONS (POLITICAL):SudanRelations with Sudan are complex.Frequent agreements not to support rebels in each others’ countries have not held. Ongoing rebel activity on both sides of the border. Around 250,000 refugees from Darfur and a further 185,000 internally displaced people (IDPs) are now present in Chad (according to UNHCR). It is widely believed that Idriss Deby (the president of Chad) was under pressure from his own Zagahwa ethnic group to support the Zagahwa rebellion in Darfur.FranceChad’s main ally in international affairs. France has a military base near N’djamena (Chad’s capital), which hosts the “Epervier” operation established in 1986 to attempt to control northern Chad and counter Libyan incursions. Chad is a member of the Franc Zone and a founding member of the French backed regional body CEMAC. France maintained a battalion of more than 1,000 troops in its former colony and supported the government through training, administration and intelligence. France maintained a troops around the country.France provided intelligence information to the Chadian government.Chadian officers continue to be trained by France. France had supported Deby but also supported the president he toppled.European Union and United NationsOn 28 January 2008, the European Union authorised a military force (EUFOR) to deploy to eastern Chad. EUFOR was designed to protect civilians in danger, deliver humanitarian aid and accompany the United Nations police-training mission. On 15 March 2009, EUFOR handed over to an integrated UN mission named MINURCAT (which had similar goals). United States of AmericaChad is a committed partner of the United States in the fight against terrorism.2015 it hosted the Lake Chad Basin Multinational Joint Task Force. The government reacted aggressively to security concerns posed by Boko Haram by instituting civilian security measures. Poor border security, limited law enforcement, and an influx of weapons from neighboring countries are ongoing concerns. An anti-terrorism law was adopted in July 2015, after attacks in the capital.Central African RepublicPresident Déby hosted in N’djamena several summits on the crisis in CAR and deployed one of the largest contingents of the African force MISCA. Chad announced April 4 its withdrawal of troops (including those of the tripartite strength Sudan Chad-CAR, deployed northeast the country)On 12 May, Chad announced its closure of its border with the CAR. President Déby however intends to retain influence over the Central African political landscape, given the RCA involved in security interests for Chad.Chad is also concerned about the situation of returnees and refugees from CAR, and is seeking financial support from the international community France supports the medical and nutritional assistance projects Doyaba camp (southern Chad).Nigeria, Niger and CameroonThe Islamist sect Boko Haram is an acute security threat to the northeast of Nigeria and beyond, south of the Lake Chad Basin (border areas between Nigeria and Niger, Cameroon, Chad). In January 2015, before the alarming expansion of the sect in northern Cameroon and Niger, Chadian forces were deployed in both countries, with the agreement of the governments concerned. Under the command of a Nigerian general, the General Staff is located in N’djamena.LibyaThe Libyan crisis meant the return of thousands of Chadians (100 000 in 2011 to nearly 300,000 residents), who fled the abuses targeting the sub-Saharan, especially in the area controlled by insurgents who accused them of supporting the Gaddafi regime. Chadian authorities now fear that the South Libyan become an area of lawlessness, could become a haven for terrorists Sahelian armed groups.Others:Resident diplomatic missions in N’Djamena include:Algeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, China, Republic of the Congo, Cote d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, France, Germany, Nigeria, Russia, Sovereign Military Order of Malta, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Sudan, the United States, the European Union, and the African Union. Switzerland maintains an aid mission. Turkey, Belgium, Togo, Senegal, Niger, South Korea, India, Italy, the United Kingdom, Denmark, Canada, and Benin have honorary consuls. Chad is a principal and active member of the African Union and the United Nations, as well as of the principal regional organizations, including the Sahelo-Saharian Organization (SEN-SAD), the Economic Community of Central African States (CEEAC), and the Economic and Monetary Union of Central African (CEMAC). Chad has been an active champion of regional sectoral cooperation through the Lake Chad and Niger River Basin Commissions and the Interstate Commission for the Fight Against the Drought in the Sahel (CILS). In addition to these organizations, Chad belongs to the Francophone Community (OIF); African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States; African Development Bank; Central African States Development Bank, Central African Economic Commission for Livestock, Meat and Fishery Resources (CEBEVIRHA); Central African States Bank (BEAC); Economic Commission for Africa; G-77; Inter-African Conference for Insurance Markets; International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); International Civil Aviation Organization; International Confederation of Free Trade Unions; International Criminal Court; International Development Association; International Finance Corporation; International Fund for Agricultural Development; International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies; International Labor Organization; International Monetary Fund; Interpol; International Olympic Committee; International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement; International Telecommunication Union; Non-Aligned Movement (NAM); Islamic Development Bank; Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA); Organization of Islamic Cooperation; Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons; Universal Postal Union; World Bank; World Confederation of Labor; World Health Organization; World Intellectual Property Organization; World Meteorological Organization; World Tourism Organization; World Trade Organization. DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS (ECONOMIC):Trading Partners:FranceUnited StatesCameroonChinaPortugalGermanyBelgiumGabonNetherlandsNigeria…MILITARY:Consists of:National Army (Ground Forces, Air Force, Gendarmerie)Republican GuardRapid Intervention ForcePoliceNational and Nomadic GuardMain Task (as of currently): Combat rebel forces within ChadBudget: 300 million USDExternal Deployments:UN missionsOtherExample: Chad participated in a peace mission to pacify conflict within the neighbouring country of Central African Republic under the authorization of the African Union.Brigade Chado-CameroonCameroon has a military relationship with Chad, which includes the Chadian military training in Cameroon.