OHHS AP/Pre-AP English Name: Kylie Bennett and Andrew Rodriguez Period: 2Major Works Data SheetNote: Cite references in MLA format, in-text and parenthetically. Complete a Works Cited page of all references used.Title: Julius CaesarAuthor: William ShakespeareDate of Authoring: 1599Date of Publication: 1609Genre: TragedyBiographical information about the author:Shakespeare is a poet and playwright who is considered, by many, to be the world’s greatest writer. He lived in England during the Renaissance, the blossoming of European learning that followed the Middle Ages. Shakespeare was born in 1564, when England had already embraced the spirit of Renaissance activity. In those decades to follow, he himself would help make the Renaissance better and bring it to even greater heights. From early 1590s, Shakespeare was associated with the Lord Chamberlain’s Men, a theater company. He wrote their plays and was also part owner. At first, he would sometimes perform as an actor with that theater, but in 1599 he became part owner to the Globe Theatre. That was the new London home of the Lord Chamberlain’s Men theater company. From Shakespeare’s plays, many familiar lines are in the English language. No other writer, before Shakespeare or after, has made the potential of English to those heights. About a year before Shakespeare’s work appeared in 1609, he began to reduce his theater activities. After, he seemed to start spending more time in Stratford than London. After 1613, when he probably moved back to Stratford permanently, he did not write any more plays. In Stratford’s Holy Trinity Church, on Shakespeare’s gravestone the date of his death is shown as April 23, 1616 but no one really knows exactly when, where, or how Shakespeare died. Citation: Applebee, Arthur N. The Language of Literature. McDougal Littell, 2006.Historical information about the period of publication:Shakespeare first wrote and produced Julius Caesar in 1599. During that time, he was known to have wrote 18 of his 38 plays. Such as Richard III, The Taming of the Shrew, and Romeo and Juliet. Also, in 1599 he was a rich man due to his co-ownership of the Lord Chamberlain’s Men theater company and his co-ownership to that same company’s Globe Theatre. Although most of his work did not appear as print until 1609, including Julius Caesar, he did still make money for all of those plays being put into production and produced. Citation: Applebee, Arthur N. The Language of Literature. McDougal Littell, 2006.Characteristics of the genre:Shakespeare’s tragedy plays are referred to as his greatest plays. A tragedy is where a story unfolds ending with a downfall of the main character (the tragic hero). A tragedy play possesses importance/high rank, shows extraordinary talents, shows a tragic flaw that leads to a downfall, and the tragic hero faces that downfall with his/her own courage and dignity. Describe the author’s style:Shakespeare’s drama commonly goes under three genres. Those genres are a tragedy, a play that shows the main character’s downfall, a comedy, a play that will usually end happy and contain many humorous elements, and a history, a play that will show the life of an English royal. Although all of Shakespeare’s plays can have different genres, they all include being written in blank verse containing soliloquies and asides, rhetorical devices, and dramatic irony. Most of his plays are made up of blank verse, which is unrhymed lines of a fixed pattern of rhythm. All Shakespeare’s staged plays include certain devices so that the audience can understand the play, even though those devices are not used in real life. A soliloquy is a long and private speech given by a character to show their own thoughts/intentions and an aside is a character’s quiet thought given only to the audience or another character on stage meaning that no one else on stage is supposed to hear. In all of his plays, Shakespeare uses rhetorical devices. These persuasive devices use language and sound to appeal to the audience’s emotion to make it more convincing and easily memorable. In those rhetorical devices are repetition of words and sounds, parallelism, and questions that need no answer. Irony is another powerful tool that Shakespeare uses in his plays. That tool is used when there is a difference between what appears and the reality. Along with irony, there is dramatic irony which is when the audience, or the reader, knows something that other characters do not know. Shakespeare’s dramatic irony makes the audience’s sense of what is happening stronger and have a bigger picture to the action. Give an example that demonstrates this style, and explain how it does so:An example of blank verse is “Let me have men about me that are fat, Sleek-headed men, and such as sleep o’ nights.” (Shakespeare 702) in Julius Caesar because it has stressed and unstressed syllables throughout. That quote shows how there is five unstressed syllables, stressed syllables in between, and a stressed syllable at the end. An example of an aside is “Caesar, I will. Aside And so near will I be That your best friends shall wish I had been further.” (Shakespeare 731) in Julius Caesar because Trebonius is talking to Caesar at first, but after it says aside, then Trebonius is saying a quiet remark that Caesar does not hear. An example of a repetitive rhetorical device is “And do you now put on your best attire? And do you now cull out a holiday?” (Shakespeare 694) in Julius Caesar because Marullus asks two different questions with the same repeated start. An example of a parallel rhetorical device is “Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more.” (Shakespeare 747) in Julius Caesar because Brutus is trying to say that he did not kill Caesar because he did not love him, but that he simply loved Rome more. Brutus tried to use two sides in that speech that the second side went against the first. An example of a rhetorical question device is “Why friends, you go to do you know not what. Wherein hath Caesar thus deserved your loves? Alas, you know not!” (Shakespeare 755) in Julius Caesar because Antony is asking how Caesar deserved all of their love but there is no need for an answer to that question, because Caesar was Caesar and it did not matter if he had their love or not. An example of dramatic irony is “Good friends, go in and taste some wine with me, And we (like friends) will straightway go together.” (Shakespeare 731) in Julius Caesar because Memorable Quotations: You may use additional paper if neededQuotation, speaker, page number, and “What does it say?””What does it mean?” and “What does it Matter””Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more.” (Shakespeare 747) Brutus is saying that he loved Caesar but he killed him because he loves Rome more and wanted to do what was best for the people. “And it is very much lamented, Brutus, that you have no such mirrors as will turn your hidden worthiness into your eye,” (Shakespeare 698) Cassius is saying that it is to bad Brutus does not have any mirrors to see how great he is and how everybody else sees him. “Oh, he sits high in all the people’s hearts: And that which would appear offence in us, His countenance, like richest alchemy, Will change to virtue and to worthiness.” (Shakespeare 711) Casca is saying that Brutus is very loved by the people and that he could get away with doing some things that would seem bad because the people trust him. ” I have not known when his affections sway’d More than his reason. But tis’ a common proof, That lowliness is young ambition’s ladder, Whereto the climber-upward turns his face” (Shakespeare 714)This quote is saying that Brutus has never seen Caesar let his emotions get the best of him but Caesar’s ambition could cause problems in the future. “There is but one mind in all these men, and it is bent against Caesar. If thou beest not immortal, look about you. Security gives way to conspiracy.” (Shakespeare 731-732)Artemidorus is saying that all of the conspirators have one plan and it is to kill Caesar. He is telling Caesar to protect himself and make sure to keep himself secure. “Grant that, and then is death a benefit. So we are Caesar’s friendsMajor CharactersCharacter’s name:Role (what role does this person have in the story?)Significance (why is this character significant to the story?)Character traits (what sort of person is this?)Julius Caesar Julius Caesar is a very treasured Roman general who is going to be appointed the position as king.Julius Caesar is important because he is shown as someone who wants to take power in Rome but would not be a very good ruler. Caesar is important because his death causes a very big rebellion with the Roman people. Brutus Brutus is a friend to Caesar and very loved by the conspirators. They want him to overthrow Caesar and take power of Rome because Caesar is not fit to rule. Brutus is important because the conspirators needed him to kill Caesar and take power. Brutus is also important because he was a very good friend to Caesar but he killed him for the good of Rome. Antony Antony is a very noble friend to Caesar and is a friend to him even after death. Antony “joins” the conspirators to ultimately avenge Caesar. Antony is important because he was a very loyal friend to Caesar and helped get revenge on the conspirators after they killed Caesar. He is also important because he takes control after Brutus and Cassius flee. Soothsayer The soothsayer is a fortune teller who warns Caesar of the ides of March and continues to warn him. Caesar died because of his non-belief of the danger. The Soothsayer is a very important character because he warns Caesar about his soon coming miss fortune. The Soothsayer tells us that something very bad will happen on the ides of March. Cassius Cassius is a good friend to Brutus and helps convince him to turn against Caesar to take power. Cassius lies to Brutus to convince him and helps him take power. Cassius is important because he helped the conspirators decide to kill Caesar. Cassius is also important because he was very good friends with Brutus and he lied to convince Brutus to join there side and kill Caesar. Without Cassius Brutus would have never joined and would have remained loyal to Caesar. Octavius Octavius is Caesar’s brother and he returns after his death. Octavius helps Antony take control of Rome after Brutus and Cassius flee from the angry citizens. Octavius is important because after the murder of his brother he comes to Rome and helps Cassius rule after the conspirators fled. Describe the setting(s) and the mood the setting(s) create:What is the significance of the opening scene?The opening scene shows that Julius Caesar is returning from defeating Pompey and everyone is going to greet him. The opening scene is very important because it shows how much the citizens love and appreciate Caesar for defeating Rome and killing Pompey. Some other people tell everyone to stop cheering and this is important because it shows that there are two types of people in Rome. The people who love and support Julius Caesar and the ones who do not like him, the conspirators. The opening scene also proves that something is just not right about Caesar and that not a lot of people trust him. Flavius and Marullus tell us that Caesar is bad and all he wants is to be king and to be better than the rest of the people.What is the significance of the ending/closing scene?Themes:A very big theme of this book is that sometimes good people do bad things to try and help. Another theme is that peer pressure is very strong and to never let it affect you. List researched sources used to compile this document: Five Minimum in MLA style, you may use an online Works Cited generator (easybib.com) and paste hereWorks CitedApplebee, Arthur N. The Language of Literature. McDougal Littell, 2006.