NUTRITION maintenance energy requirements for dogs at different life

                              NUTRITION FOR PUPPIES AND KITTENS·       For the first 3-4 weeks with
puppies& 4 weeks of kitten, exclusive feeding from mother should be there.·       The expected weight gain in this
period is 10-15gm/day for kittens, and puppies is 2-4gm/day.·       Hand rearing and foster mother are
alternate method for rearing if mother is weak or she is dead.·       The calorific need for must nursing
puppies and kittens is 22-26kcal/100g body weight.·       The number of daily feeding is
dependent on the formula guidelines of the product company·       Chilled prepare formula should not be
fed to a puppy or kitten without warming because it can induce colic.·        Tube feeding is another method of feeding
orphaned puppies or kittens. ·       The idea of solid foods can be
introduced to the puppies or kittens at 3-4 weeks of age.·       Observing the mother eating the diet
is important, and will encourage the puppies or kittens to start lapping·       Puppies will choose what their
mothers eat, so how they start learning to feed.·       Complete weaning start at 6 weeks of
age.  ·       The calcium /phosphorus  ratio should be in the range1:1 to prevent
orthopaedic diseases.·       Overfeeding should be avoided because
it may cause obesity, slight underfeeding is better than overfeeding but should
not affect the growth rate·       Weight gain should be checked every
fortnight, so it can relate insufficient calories being consumed or inadequate
protein in the diet.·       Decosahexanoic acid(DHA) has been
shown to improve cognitive ability and visual acuity  so it has been included in the diet.·       Large breeds should have a decreased
energy density.·       The protein content of growing dogs
should not be more than 22%.·       Junior or adolescent diet should be
given prior to moving onto adult maintenance diet in puppies.·       Breeds that are predisposed to weight
gain their BCS and MCS should be checked through out their life.  Average maintenance energy requirements for
dogs at different life stages


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The cow or goat milk
should not be given to the puppies because of high lactose content so it may
cause food intolerance.·      
Free choice feeding
should be given, or 3-4 times  a day
feeding should be done.·      
No bones should be given
to puppies as it can break their tooth. Any sudden change in
diet, can cause diarrhoea so the change in diet 
should be Slow so that microbial population can adapt over a period of
time in order to accommodate the change.