NUTRITION maintenance energy requirements for dogs at different life

                              NUTRITION FOR PUPPIES AND KITTENS·       For the first 3-4 weeks withpuppies& 4 weeks of kitten, exclusive feeding from mother should be there.·       The expected weight gain in thisperiod is 10-15gm/day for kittens, and puppies is 2-4gm/day.·       Hand rearing and foster mother arealternate method for rearing if mother is weak or she is dead.·       The calorific need for must nursingpuppies and kittens is 22-26kcal/100g body weight.·       The number of daily feeding isdependent on the formula guidelines of the product company·       Chilled prepare formula should not befed to a puppy or kitten without warming because it can induce colic.

·        Tube feeding is another method of feedingorphaned puppies or kittens. ·       The idea of solid foods can beintroduced to the puppies or kittens at 3-4 weeks of age.·       Observing the mother eating the dietis important, and will encourage the puppies or kittens to start lapping·       Puppies will choose what theirmothers eat, so how they start learning to feed.

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·       Complete weaning start at 6 weeks ofage.  ·       The calcium /phosphorus  ratio should be in the range1:1 to preventorthopaedic diseases.·       Overfeeding should be avoided becauseit may cause obesity, slight underfeeding is better than overfeeding but shouldnot affect the growth rate·       Weight gain should be checked everyfortnight, so it can relate insufficient calories being consumed or inadequateprotein in the diet.·       Decosahexanoic acid(DHA) has beenshown to improve cognitive ability and visual acuity  so it has been included in the diet.·       Large breeds should have a decreasedenergy density.·       The protein content of growing dogsshould not be more than 22%.

·       Junior or adolescent diet should begiven prior to moving onto adult maintenance diet in puppies.·       Breeds that are predisposed to weightgain their BCS and MCS should be checked through out their life.  Average maintenance energy requirements fordogs at different life stages Age(years) Kcal ME/Kg bwt0.

75 KJ ME/Kg bwt0.75 1-2 132 550 3-7 115 480 >7 1oo 415  ·      The cow or goat milkshould not be given to the puppies because of high lactose content so it maycause food intolerance.·      Free choice feedingshould be given, or 3-4 times  a dayfeeding should be done.·      No bones should be givento puppies as it can break their tooth. Any sudden change indiet, can cause diarrhoea so the change in diet should be Slow so that microbial population can adapt over a period oftime in order to accommodate the change.