Nowadays, process of the young generation today is important

Nowadays, technologies are highly developed and engaged in almost
all human activities. The mobile applications have become a common
part of our daily lives, they used for many kinds of purposes. The learning process of the young generation today is important to go with technologies that
became the common knowledge of their daily life (Kostrzewski, 2012). This kind of
process hopes to create a significant motivational aspect to the students and leads
them to the successful learning process both in the formal and informal area of learning. For these reasons E-learning
increasingly used in course, school or even in a college degree. The online learning is an excellent opportunity to
learn because it creates a suitable, enjoyable and entertaining learning
environment, which creates a positive mood to the learner (Mason &
Rennie, 2006).

TOEFL is one of the standardized tests
which have applied by institutions and universities all around the world to
test the English language proficiency of their students. It also becomes one of
the graduations or even registration
standard requirements in some universities for the students. However, many
students encountered the difficulty in answering the TOEFL in section two which
grant them with the Structure and Written Expression.

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This paper is mainly focused on research examines
how the use of mobile educational Duolingo application in teaching TOEFL
preparation of structure and written expression. It also discusses the
influences the learner’s understanding and motivation through the process of learning in the classroom and home environment. Duolingo application, which enables free online language learning.

Duolingo explored, considered and tested in terms of
appropriateness and quality of an educational application tool in the
classroom. The goal of this paper first is to know the effectiveness Duolingo
in teaching TOEFL preparation of structure and written expression on twelfth
grade. Second is to know the learner’s response
to the application. The third is to examine the student’s
motivational impact from the use of Duolingo. The research findings hope to assist foreign languages teachers
and students who take part in foreign
languages courses which combining the use mobile learning educational
application in their process of learning.

There are
researchers that explain the effectiveness of mobile technologies which can
help and improve student in language learning skills, especially in learning structure text. Mobile technologies know
gives the students to have high usability on learning, be easy and simple to work
with and some observe that mobile technology improve the satisfaction and
desire to learn useful (Viberg & Gronlund, 2013). They also found
that the disadvantages of the mobile device
for learning are the small keypad and the screen of mobile devices. It also very dependence on the use of the internet.

The other previous research conducted by Norshahila Ibrahim, Wan
Fatimah Wan Ahmad, and A’fza Shafie (2016) about the Effectiveness
Study on Multimedia Mobile Application for Children: Mfolktales Application, University
of Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia. Their research paper discusses
the effectiveness testing for MFolktales Application to measure effectiveness
level in students’ comprehension performance after using the MFolktales mobile
application. It has a significant improvement
in the Experimental group so MFolktales
application can be considered as
effective.

There is a lot of Mobile Education
application available on the internet. This study focuses on examines the effectiveness of one of Mobile Assisted
Language Learning: Duolingo Application in teaching TOEFL
preparation of structure and written expression. It discussed how the language learning process through the
mobile Duolingo application perceived by the students, and which attributes
that motivate them to use it more in their process of language learning. In
order to understand the effectiveness of the application, three research
questions were presented.