Nanocarriers nanoparticles as free radical scavenger, respectively. While all

Nanocarriers for transdermal application

The last few decades saw emergence of
nanoparticles based cosmetic and consumer products in market although
nano-sized titanium dioxide and zinc oxide have been in use as UV protectent in
sunscreens and cosmetics since 1990’s. Recently many anti-aging cosmetic formulations
are using fullerenes and silica nanoparticles as free radical scavenger,
respectively. While all
these formulations are meant for tropical skin treatment, there successful
applications indicate a paradigm shift in biomedical application of
nanodrugs.  The dogma of impenetrable
nature of skin for nanoparticles was defied
and research suggested the nanoparticles possess the ability to penetrate the
skin depending in size and charge of the nanoparticles. With
the advent of novel technologies in nano-material synthesis, different types of
nanoparticles have been created and used in varied application like liposome,
solid lipid nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles and
magnetic nanoparticles. These nanostructure particles have not only addressed
the shortcomings of the traditional TDDS but also emerged as better drug
carrier. Different nanosized drug carriers have been developed to errand the
transdermal transport of drugs, longer drug retention, sustained and controlled
drug release. The physicochemical
properties of nanoparticles (e.g. size, shape, rigidity, charge) affect the
interaction with the cellular components as well as its internalization. So it
is imperative to standardize the physicochemical properties of the nanodrug for
a specific application. Owing to their structural and compositional features (minuscule size, high surface energy, composition,
architecture) nanocarriers offer many advantages and limitations (table).
In the following sections comprehensive
overview of the different types of nanoparticles, their characteristics and
penetration mechanisms and some applications will be discussed:   

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