Nanocarriers for transdermal applicationThe last few decades saw emergence ofnanoparticles based cosmetic and consumer products in market althoughnano-sized titanium dioxide and zinc oxide have been in use as UV protectent insunscreens and cosmetics since 1990’s.
Recently many anti-aging cosmetic formulationsare using fullerenes and silica nanoparticles as free radical scavenger,respectively. While allthese formulations are meant for tropical skin treatment, there successfulapplications indicate a paradigm shift in biomedical application ofnanodrugs. The dogma of impenetrablenature of skin for nanoparticles was defiedand research suggested the nanoparticles possess the ability to penetrate theskin depending in size and charge of the nanoparticles. Withthe advent of novel technologies in nano-material synthesis, different types ofnanoparticles have been created and used in varied application like liposome,solid lipid nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles andmagnetic nanoparticles. These nanostructure particles have not only addressedthe shortcomings of the traditional TDDS but also emerged as better drugcarrier. Different nanosized drug carriers have been developed to errand thetransdermal transport of drugs, longer drug retention, sustained and controlleddrug release.
The physicochemicalproperties of nanoparticles (e.g. size, shape, rigidity, charge) affect theinteraction with the cellular components as well as its internalization. So itis imperative to standardize the physicochemical properties of the nanodrug fora specific application. Owing to their structural and compositional features (minuscule size, high surface energy, composition,architecture) nanocarriers offer many advantages and limitations (table).In the following sections comprehensiveoverview of the different types of nanoparticles, their characteristics andpenetration mechanisms and some applications will be discussed: