Name: This would jeopardize the confidentiality presently enjoyed by

Name:Tutor:University:Course:Date:Quantum and Post-Quantum CryptographyRecent years have prompted research intoquantum computers. Quantum computers have been the subject of controversy dueto their abilities to solve complex mathematical phenomena that have beenprimarily developed as the basis of information encryption .Given that theselarge quantum computers are built, they shall inevitably compromise the keycryptosystem that is currently in use. This would jeopardize theconfidentiality presently enjoyed by digital communication and internet usersworldwide. The primary objective of post-quantum cryptography is to createcryptographic systems that can interoperate with existing communicationprotocols. This paper shall look into common cryptographic topics and reflectthe effect of post cryptographic quantum computing on common informationencryption. Quantum key distribution Quantum key distribution is indeed asuccessful application to cryptography, quantum information that utilizes the quantummechanics theory to secure data (Quantum.ukzn.

ac.za.). Quantum keydistribution generates a random key between two points over an insecurenetwork. Quantum key distribution is founded on the following principles; thesuperposition principle and the Heisenberg’s principle.  A one- time pad encryption scheme is createdand implemented using the securely distributed quantum key.  A great protocol of quantum key distribution isthe “BB84” protocol in which single qubits are chosen randomly from {???, ???, ???, ???} states and sent. QKDprovides that the key submitted is only used once.

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This eliminates chances ofprediction from the sender-receiver or the eavesdropper. Hence Quantum keydistribution guarantees reliable security over an insecure channel unlike inpost-quantum cryptography whose key algorithms’ security rely on hardmathematical problems and the ability of a quantum computer, one thatpreferably runs Shor’s algorithm, to solve them.  Symmetric cryptography & Symmetric keymanagement systems and protocols  Cryptographyinvolves the process of making messages non-readable by encoding them.Cryptographic algorithms are grouped into symmetric and asymmetric encryptions.

The Symmetric encryption  makes use ofthe same key during encryption and decryption processes. A crucial problem insymmetric key cryptography the key distribution. The key distribution musthappen secretly. However key sharing can happen in one some ways; a trustedthird party could get involved in sharing the key with the recipient.Alternatively, the sender can physically deliver the key to the receiver. Equally,if the communicators have previously used a key, they can communicate the newkey through encryption using the old key. This option is however risky since aneavesdropper can gain access to the old key and equally get access to the  new key there hence.

   Hash functionsA cryptographic hashfunction receives an input (message) computes it to produce a fixed-size alphanumericresponse. The response is referred to as a hash value or a digital fingerprint.Hash functions are; easy to calculate for any given data.

The alphanumeric textprovided from the hash function for any given message is impossible to computefor those with a given hash. Another property that hash functions have isuniqueness (Strongauth.com.).

It is doubtful thatdifferent messages shall have a common has to value. However with thedevelopment of quantum computers, it is very likely that using the hash value,the initial message could be computed and derived successfully. This would in ahigh magnitude compromise the integrity of information passed over an insecurechannel. Other practical applications that use hash functions such as digitalsignatures and authentication also face an integrity threat following thedevelopment post-quantum cryptography. Public keycryptography Public keycryptography (asymmetric encryption) utilizes two mathematical non-identicalkeys. The two keys involved are a public and a public key.

Each of these twokeys has different roles; the public key encrypts while the private key decrypts(Strongauth.com.). Private keys canhowever not be computed from public keys. Public keys are therefore sharedhence allowing users a convenient content encryption platform.

Given that thepublic keys have to be shared, they are stored on digital certificates tofacilitate an efficient and secure sharing. Users, therefore, have them attheir disposal for encryption during information sharing. However, only theusers of private keys can decrypt the information.Shor’s algorithm Shor’salgorithm was developed by a mathematician known as Peter Shor. His innovationbrought about a quantum algorithm for integer factorization.

  All it takes is one post cryptography quantummachine with enough qubits to solve quantum gates for 0((log N) 2(log log N) (log log log N)) without giving in to noise like contemporary computers (wini). For this reason, therefore, these quantumcomputers can break public key cryptography which is based on Shor’salgorithm.  The public key encryption ispegged on a principle huge numbers are computationally impractical.  This thought is however only valid forclassical computers.

The development of quantum computers withstanding,software developers need to reach common ground with mechatronic engineers indeveloping computing systems that shall not compromise the integrity of informationreliance and computing.  WorkscitedAnon, (2017). onlineAvailable at: Post-quantum cryptography:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-quantum_cryptographyhttp://www.pqcrypto.

org/ Accessed 10 Dec. 2017.Globalsign.com.(2017). What Is Public-Key Cryptography?. online Available at:https://www.

globalsign.com/en/ssl-information-center/what-is-public-key-cryptography/Accessed 10 Dec. 2017.

Goodin, D. (2017). NSApreps quantum-resistant algorithms to head off crypto-apocalypse. onlineArs Technica. Available at:https://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2015/08/nsa-preps-quantum-resistant-algorithms-to-head-off-crypto-apocolypse/Accessed 10 Dec. 2017.Quantum.

ukzn.ac.za.(2017).

 Quantum Key Distribution — Centre for Quantum Technology. onlineAvailable at: http://quantum.ukzn.

ac.za/research/quantum-key-distributionAccessed 10 Dec. 2017.Rich, S.

, Gellman, B.,Rich, S. and Gellman, B. (2017). NSA seeks to build quantum computerthat could crack most types of encryption.

online Washington Post.Available at:https://www.washingtonpost.

com/world/national-security/nsa-seeks-to-build-quantum-computer-that-could-crack-most-types-of-encryption/2014/01/02/8fff297e-7195-11e3-8def-a33011492df2_story.html?Post+generic=%3Ftid%3Dsm_twitter_washingtonpostAccessed 10 Dec. 2017.Strongauth.com.(2017).

 Cite a Website – Cite This For Me. online Available at:https://www.strongauth.com/pdf/Noor_Symmetric_Key_Management_Systems-1.pdfAccessed 10 Dec. 2017wini J, Y. (2017).

 KeyDistribution for Symmetric Key Cryptography: A Review.