Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a motivationaltheory based on a hierarchy of needs. Maslow stated, ` that people are motivated toachieve certain needs and that some needs take precedence over others. ` Thelevels can be divided into deficiency needs and growth needs. Deficiency needsarise due to deprivation.
According toMaslow, the lower level basic needs must be met before progress can be made toa higher level. Physiological needs,safety needs, love and belonging needs, esteem needs, cognitive needs,aesthetic needs and self -activation are the tiers on the triangle. Adultswho care for children have been encouraged to meet their holistic welfare needs,rather than on their specific basic needs.Earlyphilosophers argued and had fixed views about genetic make-up and environment,impacting and shaping children’s development. Montgomery (2014) pg 53, (Open university).
The debate has gone on sinceancient Greece. There is no clear-cutanswer, but evidence from the Romanian orphanages suggested that the longer achild was deprived, the more severe the consequences were on social andemotional development. It was reportedthat some older children had totally shut down from society and appeared to beautistic or suffered from severe mental development issues. Babies who were adopted at an early age fromthe orphanage made more progress in their social and emotional development andsuffered less impact in adulthood. Although the nature, nurture debate iscomplex, child development seems to need both factors to develop healthy socialand emotional development in infancy/childhood, this leading intowell-developed young people /adults who socially, / emotionally and culturallyfit in with society.Socialdeprivation may potentially impact on the social development and experience ofa child if they are subjected to deprivation at a young age. The lack of early social and emotionalinteractions can impact on the child as the brain is growing and processing ata rapid rate and the child will not develop normally if they are notnurtured.
Rapid brain growth occurs inearly infancy. This is a critical time and will impact on how other parts ofthe brain responsible for learning and emotional well- being are developed andhow the effects will impact in later life. The lack of social interactions will delay the development of socialskills like language and the ability to deal with emotional problems such asstress. If the baby, child does notreceive stimulation, specific social skills and interactions at sensitiveperiods in infancy and childhood, they will struggle to develop these later inlife. The cases offeral children have given us an insight and better understanding about theimportance of nature and nurture in children’s development.
Social and emotional development is shaped bythe nurture and nature a baby, child receives. There aresome extreme rare cases of children being brought up in the wild and who havesuffered severe social deprivation. These children are known as feral children.` Victor; the wild boy of Aveyron was one of these children. ` It was reportedthat Victor was found at approximately twelve years old, he couldn’t speak andacted like a wild animal. ` Jean Itard,the doctor who took responsibility for Victor, wanted to prove that socialdevelopment was shaped by early social experience and not inborn.
` (Openuniversity 2014). Philosophers andanatomists took great interest in Victor. The outcome of the study had no clear outcome, as little progress wasmade in his social and emotional development. Also, there was not enough information and knowledge known aboutVictor’s past. It was reported thatVictor was unable to use language to communicate.
Itard, shared the same view as philosopherJohn Locke, believing in the theory (The Blank Slate). ` Locke believed that weare all born equal, that the human mind at birth is white paper, void of allcharacters and formed by understanding and experience. ` www.nct.org.uk/child/development.
A socially deprived child may be a childwithout proper parental care or control, subsistence, and have to live withvarious aspects of neglect, the absence of an optimal environment, education asrequired by law, the necessary care or control for mental, physical or emotionhealth and well-being. There are many more bias that may lead to an individualor individuals becoming socially deprived. Socialdeprivation is a term used to describe the reduction, exclusion or preventionof normal, cultural interaction between an individual and the rest ofsociety. An individual may becomesocially deprived due to circumstances such as; poverty mental health abuse neglectdrug and alcohol addiction poor education, all of which can lead to a path wayof isolation and severe deprivation from society.