Ludwig Van Beethoven, also known as Beethoven was a Germancomposer and pianist. Born and baptized in December 1770 in Bonn, Germany,Beethoven was the most influential composer in between the Classical andRomantic eras and still famous among all composers. Beethoven involved in musicat an early age where was taught by his father who was a musician too.
In 1778,Beethoven gave his first public performance in Cologne at the age of 7. In1782, before the age of 12, Beethoven published his first work, 9 Variations inC Minor for piano. By the age of 14, he was appointed organist of the court ofMaximillian Franz, the Elector of Cologne. Beethoven’s music evolved and madenumerous acquaintances at Vienna. In 1801 Beethoven confessed that he wasslowly going deaf. Even though he was deaf, he continued to write his music andhe produced many famous pieces such as symphonies, concerto, overture and manymore. One ofhis famous pieces is The Symphony No. 5 in C minor that was written between1804 to 1808.
It is one of the best-known compositions in classical music, and oneof the most frequently played symphonies which the four-note opening motif inparticular are also known worldwide. This symphony had a long development process, as Beethovenworked out the musical ideas for the work. The first “sketches”(rough drafts of melodies and other musical ideas) date from 1804 following thecompletion of the Third Symphony. However, Beethoven repeatedly interrupted hiswork on the Fifth to prepare other compositions, including the first version ofFidelio, the Appassionata piano sonata, the three Razumovsky string quartets,the Violin Concerto, the Fourth Piano Concerto, the Fourth Symphony, and theMass in C.
The final preparation of the Fifth Symphony, which took place in1807–1808, was carried out in parallel with the Sixth Symphony, which premieredat the same concert. Thesymphony is in four movements: Allegro con brio (C minor), Andante con moto (A?major), Scherzo: Allegro (C minor), Allegro (C major). The first movement openswith the four-note motif which is the famous motifs in Western where the playing ofthe four opening bars and refer to the conductors. Some conductors take it instrict allegro tempo; others take the liberty of a weighty treatment, playingthe motif in a much slower and more stately tempo; yet others take the motifmolto ritardando (a pronounced slowing through each four-note phrase), arguingthat the fermata over the fourth note justifies this.The second movement, in A? major, the subdominant key of Cminor’s relative key (E? major), is a lyrical work in double variation form, whichmeans that two themes are presented and varied in alternation.
Following thevariations there is a long coda. The movement opens with an announcement of itstheme, a melody in unison by violas and cellos, with accompaniment by thedouble basses. A second theme soon follows, with a harmony provided byclarinets, bassoons, and violins, with a triplet arpeggio in the violas andbass. A variation of the first theme reasserts itself. This is followed up by athird theme, thirty-second notes in the violas and cellos with a counterphraserunning in the flute, oboe, and bassoon. Following an interlude, the wholeorchestra participates in a fortissimo, leading to a series of crescendos and acoda to close the movement.
The third movement is in ternary form, consistingof a scherzo and trio. It follows the traditional mold of Classical-erasymphonic third movements, containing in sequence the main scherzo, acontrasting trio section, a return of the scherzo, and a coda. However, whilethe usual Classical symphonies employed a minuet and trio as their thirdmovement, Beethoven chose to use the newer scherzo and trio form. The fourthmovement begins without pause from the transition. The music resounds in Cmajor, an unusual choice by the composer as a symphony that begins in C minoris expected to finish in that key. Main structure of Sonata Allegro form of the first movementin details:The four note opening motif is one of the most famous soundsin classical music. The instruments involved are violin, viola, cello anddouble bass and the motif can be seen almost the same. The clarinets and thestrings are all playing in unison.
EXPOSITIONThe exposition in sonata form and theme are introduced in thefirst section of the movement. There are usually two main themes in classicalsonata form but there can be less or more.Theme 1: The first beat of the first bar is a quaver or tirest followed by three quavers (ti). The second bar is a minim with a pausesign above.Bridge: Heralds the arrival of the second theme. Theme 1 isplayed fortissimo followed by minims tied together. For a total of 26 beats.
Theme 2: Contrasts the first theme. The dynamic is piano (soft)with the direction to play dolce (sweetly). The theme has a four bar melodywith an even rhythm using crotchet beats. DEVELOPMENTThedevelopment is where the composer plays around with the themes, making themdifferent by using a variety of compositional techniques including the changingmood, the change into several tempo, adding sounds and dissonance. Besides,this symphony uses parts of themes which involved different combinations ofinstrument it also involved the changing key from major to minor and changingrhythms such as doubling or halving the value of the notes.
In this symphony,it also inverting the themes or changing the order of the notes. Beethovenusing the highlighted techniques in the development of th