LITERATURE practices and behaviors among communities of people who

 LITERATURE REVIEWSocial Media and theRole of Social Media in the Marketing            ModuleMarketing Management  Module LeaderDr. Heja Sindi  Prepared bySoleen Adel SadullaExecutive MBAPG-1 Due DateJanuary 25, 2018        A LiteratureReview on Social Media and Social Media MarketingNowadays,nearly each internet user is familiar with these two words notwithstanding oftheir profession, nationality, culture, race or religion. This concept is onlya decade old yet has achieved each social and financial class of our society.Blackshaw & Nazzaro (2004) have beautifully defined social media in thebeginning of the era of social media, as “a new source of onlineinformation, where the information itself is created, initiated, circulated andused by consumers for the purpose of educating each other about products,brands, services, personalities and issues” (Blackshaw & Nazzaro, 2004).

According to Chi (2011) social media marketing is a “connection between brandsand consumers, which provides a currency and personal channel for a socialinteraction”.DefiningSocial Media Safkoand Brake (2009) define social media as “a tool that activates, practices andbehaviors among communities of people who gather online to share information,knowledge and opinions using conversational media”. According to Robinson(2007) social media are the tools used for communication that have Web 2.0attributes that is, they are participatory, collaborative, knowledge sharingand user-empowering tools available on the Web.

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As an effective use of time andresources, social media marketing gives companies better communication groundswith the consumers to build brand loyalty beyond traditional methods (Jackson,2011; Akhtar, 2011).Kaplan andHaenlein (2010) define social media as “a group of Internet-based applicationsthat build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, andallow the creation and exchange of the user generated content”. According toKaplan and Haenlein (2010) web 2.0 is a stage where substance is persistentlychanged by all operators in a collaborative way.

Web 2.0 is theweb based technology that makes a difference to make intelligent stages throughwhich people and communities share, co-create, examine and modify the user generatedcontent. Social media are the websites which are built upon the technologicalestablishments of the web 2.0 that offer assistance to a user to make user-createdcontents that can be shared. This technology enables a user to make anddistribute the content on the social media networks. This information can be impartedto different individuals of the social media website, who are associated withthe user. This process is intuitively where other individuals can moreoverreact in distinctive ways.

Mangold andFaulds (2009) describe social media as “a set of online word of mouth forumswhich include blogs, discussion boards, forums or social networks, to name afew”. Using all mobile and web-based advances, social media profoundlyintelligently makes stages by bringing together individuals and creatingcommunities. The internet has a lot of websites; each of them has differentfunctional attributes and caters to different sections of society. Websiteslike facebook are for general masses but LinkedIn is focused on professionalnetworking. Media sharing sites (i.e.

YouTube, Picassa and Flickr) or bloggingplatforms (i.e. blogspot, wordpress) are also members of this ecosystem calledsocial media (Kietzmann et al., 2011).

“Social mediahas equipped organizations to establish a direct relationship with theconsumers. Organizations and consumers are both free to generate content on theweb pages, which further leads to conversations and discussion. Organizationson one end are provided with an opportunity to share their information with alarge base of customers and on the other end consumers are also free to publishany content whether positive or negative regarding the information.”  HoneycombModelHoneycombmodel of Smith (2007) identifies seven functional blocks of social mediawebsites: identity, conversation, sharing, presence, relationships, reputationand groups.                                          Figure 1 The Honeycomb Model (Kietzmannet al., 2011)”Eachblock allows us to understand the structure of the social media site based onthe facilities it provides to its users. These building blocks are not mutuallyexclusive and also they are not part of every social media site. These buildingblocks are the constructs which help us to understand how different levels ofsocial media functionality can be configured (Kietzmann et al.

, 2011). ”  Social MediaMarketing”Social mediamarketing is a new marketing strategy which almost every business relies on toreach their consumers on virtual networks. If you have an idea and you want itto reach millions, at a very little cost, then social media is the only way out.Entertainment companies were the first to adopt the social media as apromotional tool.

“Weinberg (2009) has defined social media marketing as the process that empowersindividuals to promote their websites, products, or services through onlinesocial channels and tap into a much larger community that may not have beenavailable via traditional channels.””So if we keep it simple, social media marketingis the process where organizations use social media websites to build rush ontheir company official websites”.It does not stop here but organizations also inform the potential customers ofhappenings in the organization, launch of the new model or product and latestnews about the organization through social media applications. Social mediamarketing is related to the consumer (Godhamer, 2009). Companies also need tokeep away from “big campaigns” and stick with “small acts” since some smallcampaigns can easily reach lots of people and accomplish the objectives in avery short period of time (Coon, 2010). Social media marketing is also moresincere in its communication with the consumers, trying to show what the brandis rather than trying to control its image. “”Theseexplanations of social media marketing takes us to the other side of marketing,where building relations with the potential consumers is the key to repeatedpurchases and enhanced brand loyalty.

Social Media is an innovative tool thatorganizations use for creating a very strong public relation with the customerson the virtual networks (Jan & Khan, 2014). Maintaining public relationsthrough social media has become easy because a large number of potentialconsumers are available on the virtual networks, and making connection withconsumers using social media is only some clicks away. Today’s customers aremore powerful and busy; therefore, companies should be reachable and availablein every social media communication channel such as Face book, Twitter, Blogs,Forums at any time (Gordhamer, 2009).” “According to Si (2015)Social media is now progressively becoming an ingrained aspect of politicalstrategies, national defense methods, public policy, advertising, itemmanagement and even organization interaction.

“”Since the major taskof promoting as device used to inform customers about the company’s items, whothey are and what they provide, social promotion plays a natural aspect inpromotion. Social media can be used to provide an identity about the companiesand the items or solutions that they provide and it is useful for creatingconnections with those who might not otherwise know about the items or supportor what the companies represent. Social media creates companies”real” to customers. If they want people follow them they need notjust talk about the newest item information, but discuss their character withthem. Social media can be used to affiliate themselves with their colleaguesthat may be serving the same concentrate on industry and also can be used toconnect and provide the connections that customers look for (Si, S. 2015).”          References Blackshaw, P., & Nazzaro, M.

(2004), _consumer-Generated (CGM) 101: Word Of Mouth In the age of the WebFortified consumer.Chi, Hsu-Hsien. 2011.

“InteractiveDigital Advertising VS. Virtual Brand Community: Exploratory Study of UserMotivation and Social Media Marketing Responses in Taiwan.”Journal ofInteractive Advertising 12: 44-61. Gordhamer, S. (2009), “4 ways Socialmedia is changing Business” Media-Business/ (accessed on 02 March 2011).

.Jan, Anisa. & Khan,M.

Furqan.(2014).”Social Media Is Nothing but a Public Relation Tool.” TheInternational Journal Of Business & Management (ISSN 2321 – 8916), Vol2(12). Kaplan, Andreas M. and Michael Haenlein.

2010. “Users of the World, Unite! The Challenges and Opportunities of SocialMedia.” Business Horizons 53: 59-68. Kietzmann, J.

H., Hermkens, K.,McCarthy, I.P. & Silvestre, B.S.

(2011), ?Social media? Get serious!Understanding the functional building blocks of social media„, BusinessHorizons (Article in Press).  Mangold, W. G.

& Faulds, D.J. (2009),”Social media: The new hybrid element of the promotion mix” BusinessHorizons, Vol. 52, pp. 357-365. Si, S. (2015).

Social Media and Its Role in Marketing. Business andEconomics Journal, 07(01).Coon, M.(2010), Social Media Marketing: Successful Case Studies of Businesses UsingFacebook and YouTube With An In-Depth Look in the Business Use of Twitter”,Communication M.A.

Project, June 4, 2010.Safko, L.,& D.K. Brake, (2009). The Social Media Bible.

New Jersey: John Wiley &Sons, Inc.Jackson, N.(2011) Infographic: Using Social Media to Build Brand Loyalty.

(Accessed 07January 2012).Robinson, J. E.(2007),”A Study Of Social Media Marketing In North Carolina Special Libraries”, UnpublishedMaster’s Thesis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, U.S.A.